English Electric Lightning

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English Electric Lightning

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Citat:No 5 Squadron RAF Lightning F3 over the North Sea, 1975... https://www.facebook.com/590671204374598/photos/a......mp;theater



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Citat:On this day in 1954, the English Electric P1a, the predecessor to the iconic Lightning, made its first flight. WG760 was piloted by Roland ‘Bee’ Beamont and a week later achieved supersonic flight.



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Саудијац у сасвим другачијој улози...

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Citat:The Firebirds, 1963.

The RAF's sole English Electric Lightning equipped display team - The Firebirds of 56 Squadron from RAF Wattisham - which was led by Squadron Leader Dave Seward, are seen practicing their signature ‘Diamond Nine’ formation roll.
https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1021315111.....mp;theater

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https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1021405053.....mp;theater Citat:... In 1962 the RAF, with the help of the USAF, carried out a series of ultra-high-level interceptions to prove the capability of such a task, given the performance of the English Electric Lightning. At that time the Lightning had been operational with the RAF for over two years, but it was the arrival of Lockheed U-2 reconnaissance aircraft at Upper Heyford that made the tests possible. The RAF requested and received permission to carry out practice interceptions as the U-2s flew overhead at the start of their missions.

For the tests two Lightning F.1As from RAF Wattisham were made available. The F.1As were stationed at Middleton St George for the duration of the tests and were tasked with intercepting the U-2s on their outward track over the Pennines and Scottish highlands. As the tests progressed interceptions changed to intercept the U-2s as they returned from their missions. Permission was also then given for supersonic flight over land, provided it did not occur within 25 miles of any major built-up area.

Rules of engagement were very strict, given the altitudes involved and the relative speed of each aircraft - and the possibility of turbulence and shockwaves incurred on the U-2s, if the Lightnings got too close. Interceptions were limited to vis-ident passes on the U-2s. If visual contact had not been made within 5 nm range, then the �attack� was to be broken off. A minimum distance of 5,000ft astern was also decreed and at no time could the Lightnings pass in front of the U-2s.

Three phases of the trial were carried out, with interceptions being made at 60,000ft, 65,000ft and heights in excess of 65,000ft. To maximise the experience for pilots, using a limited number of runs, two Lightnings at a time were used on each trail.

The Technique
Typically interceptions were carried out above the lightning's thrust boundary, so a technique using the principle of the energy climb was adopted, where speed was traded for height. The objective was to place the fighter behind the target close enough to use its weapons, before minimum control speed was reached. One of the biggest problems is Indicated Air Speed (IAS) which decreases with height to a point where it coincides with stall speed, which is constant. At 60,000ft the Lightning F.1A�s minimum practical control speed was ~190 kts IAS, which corresponded to a Mach number of 1.0. Another factor was the relatively slow speed of the target U-2, which cruised at around 135 kts IAS, or 0.7 M, again at 60,000ft.

After some initial trials, carried out over the North Sea without a target U-2, the technique found to be most successful was to cold power climb to 36,000ft, and then turn onto a crossing vector with the target aircraft and initiate a maximum reheat acceleration up to 1.5 M, at which point a constant climb up to 50,000ft was set up. This coincided with a final turn onto an intercept course with the target. Using a ground controller for guidance a final snap-up was ordered and this was held until the final altitude of 60,000ft was achieved. The Lightning pilot had approximately 1 minute 20 seconds at this altitude before airspeed decreased to the minimum positive control speed, after which time control of the Lightning became difficult.

The techniques for targets at 65,000ft and in excess of 65,000ft differed slightly to that detailed above. For the purposes of this article I do not go into detail about these other intercept profiles here.

For each technique very accurate flying was required, particularly during the constant-Mach climb and entry into the final position. Any harsh control movements severely affected performance and the expected maximum heights were unlikely to be achieved. During the constant-Mach climb from 36,000ft the required Mach number had to be maintained, regardless of the manoeuvring requirements fed into the control surfaces. For the zoom climb (i.e. snap-up) the pilot had to watch carefully his Machmeter and altimeter. Testing showed that it was best to relax gently back-pressure on the control column within approximately 5,000ft of the intercept height...

A Humorous Anecdote

On October 24th, 1962 a loud boom was heard over the city of Edinburgh at 08.41 hours. Several theories as to the cause of the sound were put forward, from an explosion at the missile research establishment at Spadeadam, to an accident at a nearby Army bomb disposal unit. In response to the accusation, the Army quickly denied all allegations, saying it could not have been them, they would not have been up at such an hour! In the end the RAF had to admit the nature of the noise, which had been heard in Edinburgh so loudly because the target U-2 was 15 miles East of its normal track...
http://simhq.com/forum/ubbthreads.php/topics/25460.....PJ3kQeQaKg

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Napisano: 06 Jul 2019 7:54

Citat:Lightning F6 XR726 'N' of 5 Sqn, RAF, having just landed on Runway 24 at Luqa in April, 1976... https://www.facebook.com/maltaaviationsociety/phot.....=3&theater

Citat:Two Lightning F6s of 5 Sqn, RAF, in different colour schemes lined up and ready to go for a local sortie out of RAF Luqa, Malta in the 70's... https://www.facebook.com/maltaaviationsociety/phot.....=3&theater

Dopuna: 11 Jul 2019 21:05

Citat:... 56 Sqn Lightning receives Firestreaks at Akrotiri, 1963. https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1021451542.....mp;theater

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