The 9K38 Igla (Russian: Игла́, needle) is a Russian/Soviet man-portable infrared homing surface-to-air missile (SAM). "9K38" is the Russian GRAU designation of the system. Its US DoD designation is SA-18 and its NATO reporting name is Grouse; a simplified, earlier version is known as the 9K310 Igla-1, or SA-16 Gimlet.
The development of the Igla short-range man-portable air defense system (MANPADS) began in the Kolomna OKB in 1972. Contrary to what is commonly reported, the Igla is not an improved version of the earlier Strela family (Strela-2/SA-7 and Strela-3/SA-14), but an all new project. The main goals were to create a missile with better resistance to countermeasures and wider engagement envelope than the earlier Strela series MANPADS systems.
Technical difficulties in the development quickly made it obvious that the development would take far longer than anticipated however, and in 1978 the program split in two: while the development of the full-capability Igla would continue, a simplified version (Igla-1) with a simpler IR seeker based on that of the earlier Strela-3/SA-14 would be developed to enter service earlier than the full-capability version could be finished.
The 9K310 Igla-1 system and its 9M313 missile were accepted into service in the Soviet army on 11 March 1981. The main differences from the Strela-3 included an optional Identification Friend or Foe system to prevent firing on friendly aircraft, an automatic lead and super elevation to simplify shooting and reduce minimum firing range, a slightly larger rocket, reduced drag and better guidance system extend maximum range and improve performance against fast and maneuverable targets, an improved lethality on target achieved by a combination of delayed impact fuzing, terminal maneuver to hit the fuselage rather than jet nozzle, an additional charge to set off the remaining rocket fuel (if any) on impact, an improved resistance to infrared countermeasures (both decoy flares and ALQ-144 series jamming emitters), and slightly improved seeker sensitivity.
On the top a SA-18 (Igla) missile, launch tube and grip stick. Below is a SA-16 (Igla-1) missile and launch tube.
According to the manufacturer, South African tests have shown the Igla's superiority over the contemporary (1982 service entry) but smaller and lighter American FIM-92A Stinger missile. However, other tests in Croatia did not support any clear superiority, but effectively equal seeker performance and only marginally shorter time of flight and longer range for the Igla.
According to Kolomna OKB, the Igla-1 has a Pk (probability of kill) of 0.30 to 0.48 against unprotected targets which is reduced to 0.24 in the presence of decoy flares and jamming. In another report the manufacturer claimed a Pk of 0.59 against an approaching and 0.44 against receding F-4 Phantom II fighter not employing infrared countermeasures or evasive manoeuvers.
The full-capability 9K38 Igla with its 9M39 missile was finally accepted into service in the Soviet Army in 1983. The main improvements over the Igla-1 included much improved resistance against flares and jamming, a more sensitive seeker, expanding forward-hemisphere engagement capability to include straight-approaching fighters (all-aspect capability) under favourable circumstances, a slightly longer range, a higher-impulse, shorter-burning rocket with higher peak velocity (but approximately same time of flight to maximum range), and a propellant that performs as high explosive when detonated by the warhead's secondary charge on impact.
Tests in Finland have shown that in comparison with the French Mistral, the 9K38 Igla has inferior range and seeker sensitivity and smaller warhead, but it has a superior resistance to countermeasures.
The naval variant of 9K38 Igla has the NATO reporting name SA-N-10 Grouse.
The most notable combat use of the SA-16 was during the Gulf War. On January 17, 1991, a Panavia Tornado bomber of the Royal Air Force was shot down by an Iraqi SA-16 MANPADS after an unsuccessful bombing mission.
During Operation Deliberate Force in 1995, one French Mirage 2000 was lost over Bosnia to a 9K38 Igla fired by air defence units of the Army of Republika Srpska.
 Other variants
An Igla-1S missile.
Several variants of the Igla were developed for specific applications:
Improved version of 9K38 Igla. Entered service in Soviet Military during late 1980s.
A version for paratroopers and special forces with separate launch tube and missile.
Air-launched version, mainly for combat helicopters.
A version with heavier warhead at the cost of a slight reduction in range and speed.
The newest variant, which is a substantially improved variant with longer range, more sensitive seeker, improved resistance to latest countermeasures, and a heavier warhead.
machak ::Citat:Pouzdanost i kvaliteta izrade - Stinger.
На основу чега тврдиш да је Игла мање поуздана од Стингера?
Ja se ne sjecam da MANPAD verzija Igle ima IFF sto reducira vjerovatnocu da nekome od svojih pilota ne zagorcas dan, plus zadnja verzija stingera ima UV I IC navodjenje pa i laksi zahvat letjelice, znaci ako ima prednosti to je u napredijoj elektronici nego u samoj raketi i njenoj agilnosti.
Mistral 2 is a short-range (6 km class) surface-to-air missile capable of intercepting a wide variety of aerial targets including those with even a low infrared signature.
It is characterised by an outstanding success rate (93% from more than 3,000 live firings), a high effectiveness against manoeuvring targets, and has demonstrated its capabilities against fixed-wing aircraft, nap-of-the-earth helicopters, unmanned aerial vehicles, cruise missiles as well as moving land vehicles and FIAC at sea.
MBDA has developed several land, naval and airborne weapon systems operating the Mistral 2 “fire and forget” missile with its advanced infrared seeker.
Missile weight 18,7 kg
Length 1.86 m
Diameter 90 mm
Warhead 3 kg
solid rocket booster with short combustion time
Speed > Mach 2.7
Range 6.5 km; 3,000 m altitude
Passive IR homing guidance by highly sensitive cooled multicell seeker
Guidance in proportional navigation
The fully autonomous 'fire and forget' Mistral 2 missile is equipped with a two-stage solid propellant rocket motor designed and developed by Snecma Propulsion Solide based in Paris, using EURENCO (formerly SNPE) propellant charges.
The missile is armed with a 3kg high-explosive warhead loaded with tungsten ball projectiles. The warheads, supplied by Manufacture de Machines du Haut Rhin SA, based in Mulhouse, France, are equipped with a contact fuse, a laser proximity fuse and a time delay self-destruct device.
Guidance is by passive infrared homing using an indium arsenide detector array operating in the three to five micron waveband, which was developed by SAT, now Safran (the merger of SAGEM and Snecma), in Paris. The detector array is housed in a low-drag transparent hexagonal pyramid shaped nose cone.
Compared to any other low-level air defence missile, Mistral is more reliable and successful. It has a success rate of 93%.
The MANPADS system is portable by two people, one carrying the missile and one carrying the firing unit. The system can be set up and ready to fire in 60 seconds. The firing station has a seat, a fire control unit and a compressed air supply.
"The Mistral 2 missile is armed with a 3kg high-explosive warhead loaded with tungsten ball projectiles."
The compressed air initiates the missile's gyroscopes and is used as the coolant for the infrared detectors. A telescopic sight is used for target acquisition. The IFF (identification, friend or foe) interrogator installed in the launcher operates while the target is being tracked. The system can be fitted with a thermal imaging night sight, for example the Sagem MATIS or Thales (formerly Pilkington) Optronics MITS 2.
Sagem received a contract in February 2002 to provide MATIS sights for the French Air Force. The missile is fired when the gunner sees a confirmation light on the launcher to signal that the infrared sensor system is locked-on to the target.
On firing the booster motor accelerates the missile to a speed of 40m/s and burns out before the missile leaves the launch tube. In less than 0.4s, with the missile at a distance of about 15m from the gunner, the sustainer motor ignites and accelerates the missile towards the target at Mach 2.5. The range of the missile is up to 6km, which it reaches in 9s.
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