Oružane snage Finske-Puolustusvoimat


Oružane snage Finske-Puolustusvoimat

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Kupuju dodatne kolicine NLAW
Finland Orders Additional NLAW Anti-Tank Weapons
Arrow https://www.defense-aerospace.com/finland-orders-a.....k-weapons/

Registruj se da bi učestvovao u diskusiji. Registrovanim korisnicima se NE prikazuju reklame unutar poruka.
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Od francuza pazare BONUS Mk II 155mm
Citat:The Finnish Armed Forces have been authorized to procure additional 155mm BONUS Mk II anti-tank artillery shells from French contractor Nexter.
Arrow https://soldat-und-technik.de/2023/02/bewaffnung/3.....geschosse/

  • Pridružio: 02 Jun 2013
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Tekst sa VO o finskom PVO prvi deo.
Ako Kubovac želi da prevede i napiše tekst kako ume sa sve slikama i svojim komentarima link je dole na kraju teksta. 😂

Citat: Finnish military air defense systems

In the 1960s, it became clear that it was impossible to protect army units operating in the frontline zone from means of air attack by anti-aircraft artillery alone. However, until the second half of the 1970s, Finland, which then had modest economic capabilities, could not afford to buy air defense systems abroad.
The first anti-aircraft missile system in the Finnish Land Forces was a portable "Strela-2M" of Soviet production. In the second half of the 1980s, Finland imported Igla-1E MANPADS. The Soviet side also offered mobile air systems: "Square", "Osa" and "Strela-10". However, for financial reasons, the Finnish military could not afford them.

After the collapse of the USSR, French short-range mobile air defense systems Crotale NG arrived. In 1997, Russia supplied Buk-M1 SAMs to repay the Soviet debt. In Finland, these tracked chassis complexes, created for military air defense, were used as object complexes and served for about 10 years.

At the beginning of the XXI century, a contract was signed for the supply of Swedish-German short-range ASRAD-R air defense systems. At the same time, Swedish RBS-70 wearable systems began to arrive at the Finnish battalion air defense units. In 2015, the Finnish army adopted FIM-92 Stinger MANPADS.

Portable anti-aircraft missile systems

In the 1970s, hostilities in Southeast Asia and the Middle East demonstrated good combat effectiveness of man-portable anti-aircraft missile systems. In those years, MANPADS were produced only in the United States, Great Britain and the USSR. The first generation MANPADS: the American FIM-43 Redeye and the Soviet Strela-2M, used missiles that were guided to the heat of the aircraft engine, which made it possible to implement the principle of "shot and forget". The British Blowpipe had manual radio command guidance, which made it completely insensitive to thermal interference. At the same time, the effectiveness of this very cumbersome and severe MANPADS directly depended on the level of training and psycho-emotional state of the operator who aimed the missile at the target with a joystick.

The supply of American FIM-43 Redeye MANPADS to Finland in the 1970s was impossible for political reasons. The combat effectiveness of the British Blowpipe, for which it was necessary to constantly intensively train shooters, was questionable. In addition, carrying a complex with a contense weight of 21 kg on foot in wooded terrain was very difficult. Strela-2M MANPADS became the best choice for Finland, which maintained friendly relations and close economic ties with the Soviet Union at that time. An important factor that influenced the choice of the Soviet portable complex was its successful combat use in real hostilities.

At the time of its appearance in 1970, Strela-2M MANPADS, adopted as a battalion air defense tool, was very good, and in terms of combat efficiency in general surpassed the American complex of similar purpose FIM-43 Redeye.

The first Soviet portable anti-aircraft missile system, serviced by one arrow operator, could hit targets at a range of 800-4,200 m in the altitude range of 50-2,300 m. The maximum speed of the rocket was 500 m/s. The weight of MANPADS in combat position is 15 kg. Length - 1,490 mm. The diameter of the rocket is 72 mm. The starting weight of the rocket is 9.8 kg. The warhead weighing 1.17 kg is equipped with 370 g of powerful explosives.

The Strela-2M complex consists of a reusable launch mechanism, an anti-aircraft guided missile with a thermal homing head in the launch pipe and a disposable external power supply. In the marching position, the anti-aircraft gunner is carried on the shoulder strap behind his back.
Strela-2M MANPADS has significantly strengthened the air defense capabilities of small units. But the use of an anti-aircraft missile with non-coolable single-channel IR-GF did not allow the selection of heat traps and limited the launch range of targets with low thermal visibility. During real hostilities, it turned out that even in ideal weather conditions, in the absence of organized interference from 10 missiles launched, only two hit the target at best.

This was largely due to the tense moral and psychological state of operators subject to combat stress, which often led to errors: incorrect determination of the distance to the target, suboptimal choice of the launch moment, shooting towards the sun, etc. If the enemy used heat traps to protect aircraft, the effectiveness of use was reduced many times.

Nevertheless, in general, the use of the Soviet portable complex of the first generation justified itself: enemy pilots, seeing missile launches, were forced to go to great altitudes, where they became vulnerable to other air defense systems, enemy combat aircraft in the event of a SDG launch in most cases stopped attacking the ground target and tried to leave the area where they were shelled, which led to the failure of the combat mission.

The Finnish army officially adopted Strela-2M MANPADS in 1978 under the name Ito 78. The exact number of MANPADS supplied could not be established, according to unconfirmed data, Finland ordered 500 missiles and 100 launchers.
MANPADS operators were trained in the garrisons of Hurill and Rovaniemi. The first training launch was made at the Wattayanniemi training ground in February 1979. Active operation of Ito 78 MANPADS continued until 2001, after which they were taken to the reserve, where they were located until 2015. However, foreign sources write that the Finnish Strela-2M could not be used by that time, due to the lack of air-conditioned batteries.

Since 1986, the Finns have received Igla-1E MANPADS used under the designation Ito 86. This complex had improved combat capabilities and could breed false targets.
The "Igla-1" complex, adopted by the Soviet Army in 1981, weighed 17 kg in combat position. The weight of the launch pipe with the missile is 10.8 kg. The far boundary of the affected area is 5,000 m. Ceiling - 2,500 m. The maximum flight speed of the missile is 570 m/s.

For quite a long time, Ito 78 and Ito 86 MANPADS were used by the Finnish army in parallel. For effective use in wooded terrain, the Finnish military used platforms on a cargo chassis that rose above the crowns of trees. In the past, Moscow has repeatedly offered Helsinki a new generation of portable complexes, but the Finns preferred Western air defense systems.

At the beginning of the 21st century, Finland purchased from the Swedish company Saab Bofors Dynamics 86 deeply modernized near-aircraft systems RBS-70 with Bolide anti-aircraft pointing through the laser channel. In the Finnish army, this complex is known as Ito 05M.

Ito 05 air defense system in a firing position

The maximum range is 8,000 m, reach in height - 5,000 m. flight speed - more than 680 m/s. The missile uses a cumulative fragmentation warhead with an armor penetration of up to 200 mm. If the air target avoids direct hit, it is hit by ready-made slaughter elements - tungsten balls.

The guidance principle, known as a "laser path" or "sedent beam", allows you to ignore traps effective against heat-guided missiles. But when following the missile inside the corridor formed by laser radiation, it is necessary to keep the target in the sight until the missile hits. Another drawback is the reduction in the range of fire in difficult weather conditions, and when the target enters the clouds, there is a high probability of disruption of guidance. There is information that the Ito 05M is able to work on surface targets, which allows it to be used in anti-landing defense.
Although the Ito 05M complex is formally considered portable, it cannot be used from the shoulder and carried alone in the field. The tripod, guidance unit, power supply and state-recoding equipment together weigh about 120 kg. Therefore, RBS-70 complexes are moved on all-terrain vehicles, ATVs and articulated tracked conveyors.
The heavy weight limits the mobility of the complex, but at the same time compared to MANPADS launched from the shoulder, the operator has better conditions for long-term duty in the position.
In stationary deployment, external power supplies can be used for power supply.
In 2011, the leadership of the Finnish Ministry of Defense raised the issue of the need to replace Soviet-made Igla-1E MANPADS, in connection with which Helsinki requested the purchase of FIM-92C Stinger man-portable anti-aircraft missile systems from the United States. The request included 600 sets, as well as related equipment and maintenance package. The amount of the transaction was estimated at $330 million.
It was possible to agree on the acquisition of American MANPADS in 2013, after which the training of operators began. In 2015, Stinger was adopted by the Finnish army under the designation Ito 15.
Contradictory data was published in the media regarding the delivery of the first batch of Stingers. Some sources claim that these were FIM-92C MANPADS transmitted by Denmark. Others write that Finland purchased FIM-92E (RMP Block I) modification complexes from the surplus of the U.S. Army stored in warehouses. According to reference data, as of 2016, the Finns received 371 American-made portable anti-aircraft systems. Apparently, now there are more Stingers in the Finnish army.
Production of FIM-92 Stinger MANPADS began in 1981, and taking into account all modifications, more than 70,000 anti-aircraft missiles have been produced to date. Currently, complexes of this type are produced by Raytheon Missile Systems Corporation.
In combat position, Stinger weighs about 16 kg, and the starting mass of the rocket is 10.1 kg. It is possible to defeat air targets at a range of 200 to 4,500 m. Reach in height - 3,800 m. The maximum speed of the missile is 750 m/s.
The Finnish army has MANPADS with a Stinger RMP Block I missile. This model, created in the late 1990s, is not the last word of technology, but at the same time this missile is considered quite effective. It is equipped with a compact lithium battery, an improved processor and a storage device that records target parameters before the rocket launches. The cooled homing head is able to capture targets with low thermal visibility, and the microprocessor provides target selection against the background of thermal traps.

Mobile military anti-aircraft missile systems

In the second half of the 1980s, when looking for a replacement for the hopelessly outdated Soviet-made ZSU-57-2, the Finns drew attention to the French short-range Crotale NG air defense systems. These mobile complexes were to protect the near rear in the front line from attacks by air attack vehicles operating at low altitudes.

In 1992, a $170 million contract was signed. In order to standardize with the equipment available in the troops and reduce the cost, the French air defense systems placed the Finnish Sisu XA-181 armored personnel carriers on the chassis. After that, the complex received the designation Ito 90M.

Ito 90M air defense system

The Ito 90 air defense system with radio command guidance of the missile had a range of up to 11,000 m. The height range is 6,000 meters. Detective tools include a Thomson-CSF TRS 2630 observation radar with a detection range of 30 km, a J-band tracking radar with a range of 20 km and an optoelectronic station with a wide field of view. Eight ready-to-use missiles are placed on the rotary module. The same amount is transported inside the car.

At the beginning of the XXI century, the Finnish "Krotali" underwent modernization and restoration repair, after which they began to be called Ito 90M. A number of sources claim that the Ito 90M air defense system has new generation VT1 missiles with a range of 15 km.

In general, the Ito 90M air defense system is a fairly effective and relatively inexpensive military air defense system. The effectiveness of the modification of the 1992 model is comparable to the Soviet Osa-AKM SAM. But the Crotale NG air defense system is more compact and placed on an armored chassis.

For timely detection of air targets and issuance of target designation of Ito 90M, mobile radar GIRAFFE MK IV (Finnish designation MOSTKA87M) on the chassis of the XA-181 APC is used.

MOSTKA87M radar

Anti-aircraft battery actions are controlled from the ITJOKE87 mobile command post on the basis of an all-terrain truck or armored personnel carrier.

Almost simultaneously with the purchase of Swedish carryable complexes in the near zone, a contract was signed for the supply of mobile Swedish-German ASRAD-R air defense systems. As in the modernized RBS-70 complex, ASRAD-R uses Bolide laser-guided air defences to hit air targets.

This complex, created by Saab Bofors and Rheinmetall, thanks to its modular design, can be mounted on any wheeled vehicle or tracked platform of suitable load capacity. The weight of the anti-aircraft module with missiles is about 900 kg.

Each machine is an independent combat unit and is capable of fighting an air enemy at a range of up to 8,000 meters and an altitude of 5,000 meters. The PS-91 radar is used to detect air targets, which controls airspace within a radius of 20 km.

There is also a combined optoelectronic sighting and search system with a thermal imager, which allows you to search for the target without turning on the radar. Ready-to-use ammunition consists of four ESDs, the same number is in stock, charged by calculation forces.

ASRAD-R air defense system on Mercedes-Benz Unimog 5000 chassis

A combat vehicle based on a Mercedes-Benz Unimog 5000 truck weighs about 12 tons and can accelerate on the highway to 90 km/h. Calculation - 3 people.

In Finland, the ASRAD-R air defense system was designated Ito 05, installed on the Sisu Nasus tracked chassis (four installations) and the wheeled Mercedes-Benz Unimog 5000 (twelve installations). In total, there are 4 combat vehicles in the anti-aircraft battery.

One battery is located in the suburbs of Helsinki as a supplement to the NASAMS II air defense system. The complex was deployed separately in the capital as a complement to anti-aircraft missile systems, the rest are designed to cover army units, military bases and bridges.

Prospects for the development of Finnish military air defense

After Russia began a special military operation on the territory of Ukraine and in connection with Finland's upcoming accession to NATO, there was an urgent need to strengthen the air defense of the Land Forces.

The troops' towed 23-mm artillery units 23 ItK 95 and 35-mm 35 ItK 88, Marksman anti-aircraft tanks on the Leopard 2A4 chassis, Ito 05M and Ito 15 MANPADS, Ito 90M and Ito 05 short-range mobile air defense systems are quite effective and modern models capable of fighting various air targets operating at low altitudes. However, in the event of a full-scale conflict and massive use by the enemy of tactical aviation, helicopters, strike and reconnaissance drones, kamikaze drones, bomb planning and cruise missiles, the available number of military air defense equipment will be small.

In addition, military experts draw attention to the fact that 23-mm 23 Itk 61 anti-aircraft assault rifles in reserve no longer correspond to modern realities. A significant part of Swedish-made mobile radars with antennas raised on folding rods require repair, and their number is not enough to conduct long-term combat operations.

It is likely that in the near future the Government of Finland will allocate additional provisions for the purchase of new consignments of military air defense equipment and air lighting radars at low altitudes.

Most likely, the well-proven ASRAD-R mobile air defense systems, relatively easy to use and affordable for carrying FIM-92 Stinger MANPADS, as well as new digital radars of the Giraffe family produced by SAAB Mіcrowave Systems will be purchased.

In connection with the modernization of military air defense and the acquisition of new air defense systems, there is a high probability of transferring 23-mm twin Soviet-made anti-aircraft guns and Ito 90M combat vehicles with French modules of the Krotal air defense system to the Ukrainian armed forces.


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Kupuju nove slemove

Citat:Finland getting 25 MEUR worth of Caiman Ballistic Helmets, reportedly for infantry.

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Modernizuju svoje dronove Orbiter 2 Mini
Aeronautics announces signing of a contract with the Finnish Defense Forces for mid-life upgrade its Orbiter 2 Mini UAS array
Arrow https://www.edrmagazine.eu/aeronautics-announces-s.....-uas-array

  • Pridružio: 07 Apr 2012
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Finland approves $345 million deal for David’s Sling long range air defense system
The acquisition will deliver a "new capability for the Finnish Defence Forces to intercept targets at high altitude," noted Finland's Ministry of Defense (MoD) in a statement.


BELFAST — Finland has announced it will acquire the US-Israeli-made David’s Sling long-range air defense system at a cost of €316 million ($345 million), just a day after it became the newest member of NATO and amid a potential Russian buildup up on Finnish borders.

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Traze zamenu za svoje izvidjacke avione Do228
Citat:The Rajavartiolaitos (Finnish Border Guard) will replace the two ageing Dornier Do228 surveillance aircraft with two new multipurpose aircraft during 2026-2027. According to the Border Guard, the new aircraft will be jet powered.

The replacement programme, better known as the MVX programme, is now in the intermediate Request for Quotation (RFQ) phase. In this phase, the offered aircraft are evaluated and contract terms are negotiated with the prime candidates.

Details of the MVX programme reveal that the following types of aircraft have been offered: Bombardier Challenger 650, Dassault Falcon 2000LXS and Cessna Citation Longitude.


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Potpisali sporazum sa Svedskom oko zajednicke kupovine vozila
Finland and Sweden Sign Agreement on Joint Vehicle Procurement
Citat:The arrangement on the joint procurement of a tactical off-road vehicle and related technologies was also signed at the same event. The arrangement enables joint procurement of mobile systems between Finland and Sweden.
The systems to be procured may include tactical off-road vehicles, armoured and other off-road vehicles, lightweight vehicles, snowmobiles, mobile howitzers and artillery systems, battle tanks, infantry fighting vehicles, mobile grenade launchers and systems, armoured and other tactical off-road vehicles and other military trucks. It is also possible to create joint training and maintenance systems for systems acquired through possible joint procurements, which will further improve security of supply. Increasing joint procurement volumes will also reduce the national procurement costs for Finland and Sweden. In accordance with the arrangement to be signed in the first phase, Finland and Sweden will cooperate to negotiate a framework agreement on security of supply for the acquisition of tactical off-road vehicles and related technologies from a single supplier.

Arrow https://militaryleak.com/2023/05/09/finland-and-sw.....ocurement/

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Pazare 91 Patria 6×6
Finnish Defence Forces to Purchase 91 Patria 6×6 Armored Wheeled Vehicles
Arrow https://militaryleak.com/2023/06/02/finnish-defenc.....-vehicles/

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