Vazdušni rat iznad Koreje

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Vazdušni rat iznad Koreje

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Dokumentarac o dešavanjima za vreme Korejskog rata (borbe između F-86 Sabre i MiG-15) u kojim je nestalo 33 američka pilota - njihova sudbina je dugi niz godina bila nepoznata, kao i Staljnov plan da se domogne amričke tehnologije i prebaci u SSSR radi daljeg izučavanja.
















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Imena pilota i broj vazdušnih pobeda na MiG-15



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Jel može ime i broj pobeda za poslednjeg jer je pokriveno žigom?

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Sada je OK. Hvala.

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A little promising beginning

Yevgeny Pepelyayev born on March 18 1918 in Bodaybo, Irkutsk (Eastern Siberia), son of a railroad worker. Even when he learnt and worked in his youth in the same proffesion than his father, like many other future aces he felt atraction for the aeronautics since his childhood, and when his elder brother Konstantin enlisted in the Soviet air force, he looked for job in Odessa as assistant in the aeroclubs of the city, with the intenttion to follow the steps of Konstantin later.



Pepelyayev's family (Odessa, 1937). From left to right: his elder brother Konstantin, his younger sister Ludmilla, his girlfriend Maya Konstantinovna Fayermann (later his wife) and Yevgeny.

He graduated in 1938 from the 8th Military Pilots School and was sent to serve in the regiments deployed in the Soviet Far East. When the German invasion to the USSR began in June 1941, he requested several times to be transfered to the battle front, and those requests were more frequent after his brother Konstantin was killed in action by German fighters. Those requests were always rejected, with the only exception of a short period when he played as instructor of the 162nd IAP (late 1943). And in this only instance, the bad weather reduce his battle chances to recconnoissance flights. In one of them, his Yak-7 was jumped by German planes and seriously damaged, but the skillful Yevgeny managed to return his base, where the Yakovlev could be repaired.

Those were hard times for Yevgeny: the death of his beloved brother and the fact that his military career seemed to be stuck made him to feel very frustrated. But Maya was always there to confort him, to advice him and to support him. It was thanks to her strenght that he didn't quit to the VVS.



Captain Yevgeny G. Pepelyayev in 1942, when he was 24 years old.

Finally he could show his flying and command abilities at war: in 1945 he was the deputy commander of the 300th IAP, and his unit participated in the operations against Japan in Manchuria. Pepelyayev performed 20 combat sorties, finding no aerial opposittion during them. Instead, a locomotive and a truck were destroyed in the ground by the heavy 37-mm cannon of Pepelyayev's Yak-9T before the end of the war on August 14 1945. However, the 300th IAP did not return to the USSR immediately, instead it was assigned the task to surveil the deployment of the US troops in Korea. From its temporal base in Shenyang (Manchuria) Pepelyayev and his buddies accomplished their mission between November 9 1945 and March 1946, when the unit was sent back to the Soviet Union.

Always hungry of new knowledge and encouraged by Maya, Yevgeny applied for a technical and command course in the VVS Academy. It was not easy, at that time it was hard for an officer serving in the Soviet Far East to be taken into account for a course of technical improvement, but his persistance succeded. Pepelyayev began the course in the autumn of 1946, and he aproved it with honors in 1947. Then, while waiting for his new assigment, he awarded the 10 years of patience and support of Maya, and made her his wife.



Pepelyayev's wife, Maya Konstantinovna Fayermann, in 1950.

In December 1947 he became the XO of the unit which would make him famous: the 196th IAP of the 324th IAD. This unit was among the first ones in the VVS to enter the jet age when was equipped with the newest La-15, and the regiment made an acrobatic show during the parade of the May 1st 1948 in Moskow. In July 1949 the regiment began to receive a new ride: the MiG-15. And soon Yevgeny mastered the flight on it.

Even when his flight habilities and command capacities didn’t remain unnoticed certainly nothing seemed to indicate that he would become one of the top aces of the typical conficts caused by the “Cold War”. But then in June 25 1950 the Korean War began, and everything changed.
The USSR gets into the Korean War

When in October 1950 the Colonel Pepelyayev recieved the command of the 196th IAP, the War of Korea was in its climax, with the UN troops and air forces (led by USA) entering in North Korea after defeating the initially succesful North Korean invasion to South Korea. Both Joseph Stalin and Mao-Tse-Tung decided that they would not see how a Communist allie (Kim Il Sung) was defeated without move a finger. Secretly the USSR sent several air regiments equipped with the new MiG-15s to the Chinese base of Antung (in Manchuria) with the mission to support the Chinese counter-strike. In a short period of time the Soviet fighters transformed the southern shore of the Yalu river in the most dangerous area for the UN aviation, zone that received the nickname of “MiG Alley”.



All the pilots of the 196th IAP/324th IAD in Antung, early 1951, prior to the beginning of the war operations. Surrounded by a red elipse, Yevgeny Pepelyayev.

Anyway, the arrival of the fighters F-86 Sabre of the 4th Wing of the USAF in December 1950 turned the tables in favour of the UN again. It was decided to create the 64th IAK (Fighter Corp) with two fighter regiments and to assign them the best available pilots. The chosen units were the 176th GvIAP and 196th IAP (Pepelyayev’s unit) of the 324th Division and the entire division was put under the command of the best possible man: Colonel Ivan Kozhedub, three times awarded with he Golden Star of the Heroe of the Soviet Union (the highest Russian military award) and Top Scoring Soviet Ace of the WWII with 62 victories against the German Luftwaffe.
Pepelyayev arrives to Antung

The 196th Regiment arrived to Manchuria in January 1951, and it remained in second-line airfields until complete the training of the pilots and their familiarization with the temperamental MiG-15 with Kimov RD-45 engine, and then was re-deployed to Antung. On April 1 both regiments were finally commited to combat, but their results weren’t good initially: on April 3 three MiGs of the 176th GvIAP were shot down by the American Sabre pilots (one of them by James Jabara) and only one F-86A was downed by Kapetan (Captain) Ivan Yablokov - the one flown by Ronald Shirlaw (POW). The reason was simple: in an attempt to keep in secret the Soviet injerence, the Soviet pilots were ordered of speak only Korean or Chinese language in the radio. It caused a lot of complains from Pepelyayev and Col. A. S. Koshel, CO of the 176th GvIAP. As Pepelyayev himself explained:

Col. Yevgeny G. Pepelyayev: “It was impossible psychologically in the heat of battle to use a foreign language you hardly knew. So after a week or two we just decided to ignore the order. The top brass started complaining, so I told them: ‘Go and fight yourselves!’.”

Col. Kozhedub supported his subordinates in front of the commander of 64th IAK, Lt.Gral Ivan V. Belov, and due to Kozhedub was one of the Stalin’s “favourite sons”, the High Command of the VVS finally gave up and allowed that the pilots speak Russian in combat. That caused an immediate raise in battle efficiency: next day April 4 the MiG-15 pilot Starshii Leitenant (1st Lt.) Fiodor A. Shebanov scored the first victory of the 196th IAP when bagged one F-86A (not admitted by USAF but confirmed by the guncamera footage and the fact that a Soviet ground party led by Major V. P. Zhuchenko found the Sabre's wreckage in the ground), on 7 April the MiG drivers of the 176th GvIAP shot down the F-80C of Jack Thompson (downed by Boris Obratsov) and the B-29A BuNo 44-86268 (by Ivan Suchkov), and finally on April 10 again Fiodor Shebanov shot-up the F-86A BuNo 49-1093 and his buddy the WW2 ace Kapetan Aleksandr Vasiko bagged the F-80C of Douglas Matheson (KIA).



A 33-year old Yevgeny Pepelyayev in 1951,
just after returning of a combat sortie.

Such improvement in the combat performance reach its peak on April 12 1951. That day 44 MiG-15s of the 176th GvIAP and 196th IAP intercepted an American formation of 48 B-29s of the 19th, 98th and 307th BW (Bombing Wings) escorted by 34 F-84s and 18 F-86s, plus 24 F-80s to perform flak suppression, when they tried to attack the bridges across the Yalu. In the ensuing battle 10 B-29As and three F-80Cs were shot down or damaged beyond repair, all that against the loss of a single MiG due to a Sabre (despite the American claims of 4 MiGs downed by the F-86 Sabres and 6 more by the B-29's gunners). It is fair to be told, the Soviet pilots also overclaimed, because they asserted to shot down 12 B-29s, four F-80s and two F-86s. During this battle Pepelyayev's unit scored the shootdown of two B-29s - downed by Kapetan Viktor A. Nazarkin and Starshii Leitenant Fiodor A. Shebanov respectively. Sadly the 196th was also which suffered the single Soviet loss, when the MiG of Kapetan Yakovlev was badly shot-up by James Jabara and written off after landing, but Yakovlev was not wounded, and that was a relief.
First victories

May 20 1951 meant the end of three weeks where both sides were relatively quiet. That day a force of 36 MiGs fought with 28 Sabres, and during that combat both sides claimed more victories than the ones they actually scored (USAF claimed three MiG kills and the VVS to shot down four F-86s). The truth is that while the Americans only shot down one MiG, the Russians only damaged beyond repair three Sabres. In first place the lethal F-86 Sabre pilot Captain James Jabara shot down one of the Pepelyayev’s men, Kapetan Viktor Nazarkin, and in retaliation the commander of the 196th IAP, flying the MiG-15bis Fagot Nº 0715368, shot down one F-86; as indicates the after-battle report presented by Pepelyayev:

Col. Yevgeny G. Pepelyayev: "...on 20 May 1951, during the period of 15:08-15:58 hours, during an air battle with a group of F-86 Sabres I fired at an F-86 at a range of 500-600 meters. At the time of my firing, I noticed shell strikes along the enemy's right wing, after which the aircraft went from a bank to the left into a right turn."

It must be noted here that he do not claim any shootdown directly; he do not say “I shot down an F-86” but he simply describe what really happened, and such style is typical in all his reports. As a matter of fact, the burst fired by Pepelyayev did more than to hit the right wing of that Sabre, it actually struck the ammunition bay of the F-86A BuNo 49-1080 flown by 1st Lt. Milton Nelson (335th FIS), causing that the 0,50" M23 ammo blew up, destroying the hydraulic lines of Nelson's aircraft. The skillful Nelson (who wrongly had claimed a MiG kill few minutes earlier and would shot down 2 MiGs fully confirmed by the Russian loss records) managed to bring his crippled Sabre back to Kimpo, but then it was written off. Nelson never saw Pepelyayev, and he wrongly assumed that the troublesome M23 ammo had blown away alone. Without knowing it, Nelson became the first out of the 19 victories that Polkovnik Yevgeny Pepelyaeyev would be credited with.



Profile drawing of the MiG-15bis Nº 0715368 "768" flown by Polkovnik Yevgeny Pepelyayev
on May 20 1951, when he shot up the F-86A BuNo 49-1080 of 1st Lt. Milton Nelson (335th FIS),
his first aerial victory. The "768" was a temporal assignment until his definitive aircraft the
MiG-15bis "325" was ready. - Drawing by Yury Tepsurkayev.

That was a good day for the 196th IAP: despite the loss of Nazarkin's MiG, the Russian flier bailed out safe and sound, and in return three Sabres were damaged beyond repair; besides Pepelyayev shoting up the F-86A of Milton Nelson, Majora (Major) Nikolay K. Kirisov so did with the F-86A BuNo 49-1313 of Captain Max Weill, and Starshii Leitenant Vladimir I. Alfeyev damaged beyond repair the F-86A BuNo 49-1318 of James Jabara.

On July 11 at 9:35 hs 26 MiG-15s of the 196th IAP led by Pepelyayev himself joined to a battle between the 176th GvIAP and the 335th and 336th FIS, and their presence was soon noticed: Followed by his wingman Starshii Leitenant Ivan V. Larionov, Yevgeni G. Pepelyayev lined up his MiG-15bis Nº 1315325 behind two Sabres and opened fire with his terrible NR-37 cannon at a range of 500-600 mts against the F-86 wingman. Let's read how the Russian "Honcho" recalled that engagement:

Col. Yevgeny G. Pepelyayev: "In this same combat I pursued a F-86, and there was a moment when this Sabre slowed down his maneuver, then I performed an slight turn right bellow him at his 6 o'clock, and I opened up. Pieces of debris flew away of the Sabre from the right wing. The aircraft violently spun to the right and downwards. One of my pilots screamed:
-There it goes!
I didn't follow that Sabre - the combat still went on. I remember I thought with a lot of satisfaction, that later I would show this guncamera footage to my pilots - so they would learn how to shoot."

His victim was the F-86A BuNo.49-1297 (336th FIS), flown by a pilot surnamed Reeves, who managed to bring his crippled Sabre back to Suwon, but once there crashed on landing. Fortunatelly Reeves was not injured at all, but his F-86A was written off two days later. The USAF officially reported the loss as a “landing accident”.



Aleksandr D. Ryzhkov (left) and Ivan V. Larionov (right) were the wingmen of Yevgeny Pepelyayev during the Korean War. Larionov was shot down and killed by the Sabre pilot Milton Nelson (335th FIS) on July 11 1951. Aleksandr Ryzhkov was credited with 4 victories against American aircraft, 2 of them match with admitted US losses (a F9F-2B of VMF-311 on October 3 1951, and the F-86A of David B. Freeland on November 8 1951). Ryzhkov was killed in action by Winton Marshall on December 5 1951.

But then tragedy struck: Pepelyayev and Larionov should be covered by the zveno of Kapetan Viktor Nazarkin, however because of reasons not clearly established yet, Nazarkin’s group stayed in the high without participating in the battle, and a flight of F-86A Sabres took advantage of that, jumping the MiGs of Pepelyayev and Larionov:

Col. Yevgeny G. Pepelyayev: “I assumed that my wingman and the flight of Kapetan Nazarkin were covering me. But Nazarkin's zveno couldn't do it. As he explained me later, he was blinded by the sun glare and lost track of me. The americans used that, attacked my wingman Larionov and shot him down. We couldn't even bury him - he fell in Yellow Sea. Then the US fighters opened fire on me. A second pair of enemy aircraft comes in and Nazarkin is still away. I understood I was on my own and put my plane in a spin hoping to get in the clouds below. I was going down and one Sabre was following me firing all the time, but he wasn't good enough and couldn't hit me. I entered in the clouds, leveled on just over the water and headed back to my airfield.”

Without knowing it, 1st Lt. Milton Nelson took revenge of his defeat 52 days before, when he was downed by Pepelyayev. In return Nelson shot down and killed Ivan Larionov. Then 1st Lt. Alonzo G. Walter jumped Pepelyayev’s MiG, claimed to damage it and saw it going down apparently in an uncontrolled spin. However, as we read in Pepelyayev’s account, it was actually a trick: Pepelyayev and most of pilots with thousands of hours flying the MiG-15 knew how to enter in a controlled spin but later regain control of their aircraft. And this time the trick worked.
When Pepelyayev landed in Antung, he immediately asked Nazarkin why he didn’t cover him, and Nazarkin told him that because of the sun glare. Pepelyayev was not totally convinced, and he supposed that Nazarkin could have been affected by the experience of being downed and nearly killed by James Jabara on May 20. That might have caused that Nazarkin became reluctant to be involved in a fight against the F-86s again. Despite Pepelyayev appreciated the combat skills and aggressiveness previously demonstrated by Kapetan Nazarkin (he had been credited with three victories) and understood how shocking was the experience of being shot down, he concluded that in such present situation Nazarkin was a danger for his comrades, so Pepelyayev asked that Nazarkin returned to the USSR because of medical reasons.



Pepelyayev in Antung, August 1951.

Few days later, on July 21, 10 MiG-15s of the 196th IAP led by Pepelyayev intercepted what they wrongly identified as a formation of "F-94s" (actually F9F-2Bs of the USMC's squadron VMF-311), and they devastated it: Pepelyayev claimed to shot down with his MiG-15 two of the enemy aircraft, and his deputies claimed to destroy five more of those "F-94s". The Chinese search teams confirmed part of these claims, because they found four wreckages. In the case of Pepelyayev’s claims, the Chinese could confirm one of them - they found the remains in one of the two set of coordinates indicated by him, reported a serial number in the wreckage (“109I405116”) and also found the death body of the pilot in the crash site. They also confirmed the sole victory claimed by Kapetan Boris S. Abakumov (the US pilot, Lt. Richard W. Bell, was captured) and both the two victories claimed by Starshii Leitenant Andrey I. Pupko.
The Sabre’s Hunter

But the most important MiG-15 victory of this period happened on October 6 1951, when Colonel Pepelyayev (flying the MiG-15bis Fagot Nº 1315325 again), during a battle among 10 MiGs belonging to his regiment and 16 Sabres of 4th FIW at 8,000 meters (about 24,000 feet), he downed 2 F-86s with 37 mm ammunition. In first place he organized the engagement and later himself performed an attack against the leader of the heading pair of Sabres, firing against him at 550 meters (yards), without confirm the results of the attack, due to the second pair of Sabres also attacked both MiGs -Pepelyayev's and the one of his new wingman, Aleksandr Ryzhkov- almost in a head-on attack. According to Pepelyayev himself:

Col. Yevgeny G. Pepelyayev: "I remember this battle as if it happened yesterday. Their leader opened fire on my aircraft and ripped off a piece of the air intake...

I remembered a maneuver developed by me and my friends, when we were trying to develop new tactics. During head-to-head attacks, when both aircrafts are trying to get on each other's tail, one of the maneuvers was to indicate a ‘boevoj razvorot’ [combat turn in Russian - Note of Vladislav Arkhipov] to one side, but then to make a sharp turn to the other side and follow the opponent. When the enemy aircraft wouild exit from the combat turn, I would end up on its tail. That's what happened that time. When I passed the Sabres on the head-to-head course, they initiated a right turn while rapidly gaining altitude. I , on the other hand, continued to fly level for a while, and then begun turning to the right, towards the Sabres. When I achieved a turning angle of between 40-50 degrees, I initiated a sharp left turn and ended up behind the lead Sabre slightly above it and to the right.

It was almost directly in front of me, just over 100 meters [300 feet] away. I pushed the stick, trying to align with the Sabre. However, the targeting indicator would always be above the Sabre, while at the same time negative g would try to pull me out of the cockpit. Then I rolled upside down so the g-force would press me into the seat; it's more convenient to aim that way. As soon as I rolled, the Sabre did the same thing, but by then I already got the targeting indicator over him, and I opened fire from a distance of 130 meters [364 feet]. A 37 mm shell hit him directly behind the cockpit. There was an explosion and the Sabre started to losing altitude. I did not follow him: after such a hit there was no reason to pursue him."


These stills were captured by the gun camera of the 37 mm cannon belonging to the plane MiG-15bis Nº 1315325 flown by Col. Yevgeny Georgievich Pepelyaev on October 6 1951. In them appears the F-86A BuNo 49-1319 flew by Captain Gill M. Garrett perfectly placed in the fire line. The first photograph was taken at 130 meters (364 feet), and the second one at 122 meters (342 feet).

The Sabre's pilot, Captain Gill M. Garrett, used all his habilities to land upon his damaged plane in the Sokhoson Bay (East China Sea), and the American pilot was rescued by a SA-16 Albatross seaplane. It must be noted that the Sabre leader of the one hit by Pepelyaev, gallantry tried to provide cover to Garrett during the time after being hit until it landed in the sea shore; but it was seen by a group of MiG-15s of the 176th GvIAP, leading by the unit's deputy commander, Kapetan Konstanin Y. Sheberstov. Sheberstov chased that Sabre (the F-86E BuNo 50-671), caught him by surprise and shot up its hydraulic lines so badly that the unknown pilot barely managed to reach the UN lines and then was forced to eject. Few hours later, Pepelyayev blasted another Sabre out of the sky, the F-86A BuNo 49-1267 (334th FIS), his second kill of the day (according to USAF official records, this Sabre was lost because of an "engine failure").



Profile Drawing of the MiG-15bis Nº 1315325 flown by Yevgeny G. Pepelyayev (196th IAP, 324th IAD) on October 6 1951 when he shot down the F-86A BuNo 49-1319 of Gill M. Garrett (336th FIS) and the F-86A BuNo 49-1267 (334th FIS). With this aircraft Pepelyayev scored 17 out of his 19 victories.

The first Sabre downed by Pepelyayev (Garrett’s) was left almost intact on mud flats over the sea shore. It was gold for the USSR; finally a chance to get a look to the hottest USAF fighter jet, and the Soviet technicians took the chance: a special team leaded by the Engineer Kazankin achieved to rescue the damaged plane, put it on a truck and sent it to USSR (after a dangerous travel where the American B-26s attempted to destroy the remains of the Sabre).



This picture shows the aspect of the F-86A Sabre BuNo 49-1319 when it was rescued from the shore of the Yellow Sea after being shot down by Yevgeny Pepelyayev on October 6 1951. This plane was sent to the Soviet Union.

Pepelyayev still scored one more victory that month: on October 16 both he and his wingman Aleksandr Ryzhkov caught by surprise a pair of Sabres of the 336th FIS (Douglas Evans and Nicholas Kotek) and the American fliers barely avoided being swept of the sky by the Russian "Honcho".

1st. Lt. Douglas K. Evans: "The squadron divided down into flights for better maneuverability and Maj. Creighton and I, as Red One and Three, took our elements down on a lone MiG we spotted and then lost below the rim of the horizon, so we pulled back up to regain our altitude. Nick Kotok (Red Four) and I saw two planes going around below us and I called Creighton and Pat Green (Red Two) to make a 180. When they did they both yelled at us, 'Break left! There's a MiG right on you!'

Pat later told me that this MiG was right on our tails and evidently out for blood, as he fired damn near point blank just as we broke and must have snapped upright trying to follow our tight turn, then just hauled it straight up and out. Pat said it sure was a close thing, but ignorance is bliss and I had replied over the radio, 'I don't see a thing, no sweat.' "

As a matter of fact, Pepelyayev had opened fire before Kotek was able to break -the guncamera pics show that Pepelyayev was at only 80-100 meters (240-300 feet)- and one 23 mm shell hit Kotek's F-86A (BuNo 49-1147) in the fuel tank. Initially that was not noticed by the US pilots, but during the return Nick Kotek realised he was running out of fuel and was forced to bail out before to reach his base. In good faith Kotek and USAF believed that the loss have been caused by "fuel starvation". The truth was that the "Sabre Hunter" had piled up one more F-86 to his scoreboard.



This picture was extracted from the guncamera footage of Pepelyayev's MiG-15bis on October 16 1951, and it shows the F-86A BuNo 49-1147 flown by Nicholas Kotek being hit in its fuel tanks at 80-100 meters (240-300 feet). With such damage, Kotek was forced to bail out few minutes later.

Yevgeny was credited with another Sabre kill on October 28, but the truth is that no F-86 was lost that day, so it is an overclaim in good faith (one of Pepelyaev's few ones). Anyway, if October was good for his hunter's instinct, November would be even better.

A Red Predator over the "MiG Alley"

Since November 1951 untill January 1952 both sides tried to achieve the air superiority over the Yalu, or at least tried to deny it to the enemy, and in consequence the intensity of the aerial combats reached peaks not seen before. It was a good time for the aggressive fighter pilots both Soviets and Americans, and Pepelyayev was among them. November 8 1951 was a day particularly succesful for him, because he piled up two American aircraft into his scoreboard: at 12:10 hs Pepelyayev led 20 MiG-15s of his unit to perform a CAP over the "MiG Alley", and about 30 minutes later at 7,000 meters (21,000 feet) over Pkhenvon he spotted four F-86s, apparently unaware of their presence. Without hesitation Pepelyayev jumped the American element wingman and opened fire with the 3 cannons of his MiG-15bis at 150-200 meters (450-600 feet):

Col. Yevgeny G. Pepelyayev: “I hit this Sabre so hard that it desintegrated. The pieces of its right wing ripped away, and its vertical stabilizer also tore apart. The Sabre began to spin and plunged to the ground. One of my pilots screamed: 'Cool!' and I replied: 'Watch up, bunch of idiots, and take care of not being surprised and shot down by the enemy!'

I get down of the cockpit thinking about to show the guncamera footage to the whole regiment with educational purposes; but the footage only showed an usine and a chimney instead of showing the Sabre... . It happened that I lended my aircraft to another pilot because no other MiG was available. This guy fell asleep in the cockpit during an alert wait and he accidentally layed on the conmutator. The result was that it consummed the whole film that I should use. But anyway I got the full credit for this victory: the aircraft crashed and the debris was recovered from the terrain a little bit later. The American pilot did not eject."

Pepelyayev's victim was the F-86A BuNo 49-1338 of Charles W. Pratt (334th FIS), who perished. As a matter of fact, a second Sabre fell in that engagement: Yevgeny jumped another F-86A -flown by David B. Freeland, of the 336th FIS- and despite he damaged it, he ran out of ammo before to finish him off, so he called his wingman Starshii Leitenant Aleksandr Dmitryevich Ryzhkov, who had no problems to give Freeland the coup d'grace and force him to bail out - Pepelyayev eyewitnessed the ejection. After returning to Antung Pepelyayev was offered a 'group' kill shared with his wingman, but he refused and gave to "Sasha" Ryzhkov the whole credit for the aerial victory against Freeland's F-86 (BuNo 48-259). But there was a prize to pay for such successes: during that combat the future Sabre ace William T. Whisner scored his first victory in Korea when he shot down the MiG of one of Pepelyayev's men, Starshii Leitenant Aleksey F. Trabin, who was killed in action.



Photo taken by the Soviets of the remains of the F-86A BuNo 49-1338 flown by 1st Lt. Charles W. Pratt (334th FIS) on November 8 1951, when he was shot down and killed by Yevgeny Pepelyayev.

Few hours later (15:05 hs) Pepelyayev again led another group of six MiG-15s of the 196th IAP when intercepted a RF-80A of the 15th TRS escorted by a group of F-80Cs and F-84Es, and despite such escort, Pepelyayev did not sweat at all to shot down this RF-80A (the pilot Dennis W. Hill ejected safe and sound, and was rescued - he was so unaware of the presence of Pepelyayev, that he thought he had been hit by AAA), and the arrival of more MiG-15 of the 176th GvIAP disbanded the escorts. The flier of one of these MiGs, Konstantin Sheberstov, bagged one of the escorting Shooting Stars, killing the pilot (Jerome A. Volk).

After a rest of two weeks, in only 3 days in late November he bagged four American aircraft: On November 27 he had no problems blasting out of the sky the F-80C flown by Bernard K. Seitzinger (7th FBS of 49th FBW, KIA) and the next day, November 28 1951, destroyed 2 F-86s in a matter of minutes; flying his MiG-15bis Fagot Nº 1315325, Yevgeny Pepelyayev badly shot-up the F-86A BuNo 49-1166 [USAF admitts the loss, but credits it to a "collison with an object"] and then heard the anguished cries for help of one of his men, Starshii Leitenant Alfey Dostoievsky, who was under attack of a very aggressive Sabre. Despite he ran to help Dostoievsky at full throttle, Pepelyayev could not do anything to prevent that the F-86 shot down his subordinate, who bailed out and landed safe and sound. But then Yevgeny avenged Dostoievsky puting that Sabre in his gunsight and squeezing the trigger; two bursts of the lethal 37 and 23 mm cannons at only 180-140 meters (540-420 feet) were enough to send the F-86E BuNo 50-673 downwards in flames and to force its pilot, 1st Lt. Dayton Ragland, to eject to his captivity (Besides shooting down Dostoievsky that day, Ragland and Kenneth Chandler had performed an audacious strike against North Korean airbase of Uiju 10 days earlier, on November 18, destroying four MiGs in the ground).


One of the victories achieved by the MiG-15s during the last months of 1951 was the one that can be seen in these stills, scored on November 28 1951 by Yevgeny Pepelyaev. It was the F-86E BuNo 50-673 flown by 1st Lt. Dayton W. Ragland (336th FIS), who bailed out and became POW.

Pepelyayev would score his kill #14 the next day (November 29 1951), when he riddled the F-86A BuNo 48-301 of the 334th FIS at 13:38 hs over Syukusen. Somehow the unknown but indeed skillful pilot of that Sabre managed to bring his crippled aircraft back to Kimpo, but the aircraft was so damaged that was written off as scrap iron on December 9.

This victorious streak reach its peak on December 1st 1951 during a combat sortie occurred between 15:00 and 15:55 hs, when the 196th IAP intercepted the Shooting Stars of the 35th FBS which were strafing the marshalling yards of the North Korean capital, Pyongyang. In a blink of an eye, Pepelyayev (flying this time the MiG-15bis Nº 1815399 because his usual ride the MiG "325" was under manteinance) forced 1st Lt. Thomas T. Mounts to bail out of his F-80C BuNo 49-855 in flames, and so did his comrade V. G. Muravyov with the F-80C of William Womack (in this case the American flier was not so lucky, he perished). That was a great day for the Russian MiG-15 pilots, because an hour later the 176th GvIAP ambushed the Australian Meteors of the No.77 Sqdn, and shot down three of them. So, the Russians scored five victories and suffered no losses.



Pepelyayev scored most of his victories while flying the MiG-15bis "325", but achieved his first kill with the MiG-15bis "768", and his 15th one (the F-80C flown by Thomas T. Mounts) on December 1 1951 in the cockpit of the MiG-15bis Nº 1815399 "899". - Drawing by Yury Tepsurkayev.

Pepelyayev should wait more than a month (and a new year) to shows his lethal skills again. On January 6 was credited with an F-86 kill, and as a matter of fact USAF admitts the loss of a Sabre by MiGs that day, but so far it seems that this F-86 was shot down by his countryman Nikolai Sutyagin. The air combats on January 7 1952 were a fully different matter: at 8:40 hs in the morning Pepelyayev scrambled of Antung and led 18 MiG-15s of his regiment to engage a group of enemy aircraft. Nine minutes later over Sinuiju the 196th IAP entered in a melée with the Sabres of the 25th FIS/51st FIW, and Pepelyayev set on fire the F-86E BuNo 50-651 forcing the American pilot Charles E. Stahl to eject (Stahl was subsquently captured by Chinese troops).

Yevgeny claimed to shot down another F-86 next day, but his victim (F-86E BuNo 50-679) was only damaged, could be repaired and returned to combat - only to be destroyed on October 11 1952 by the MiG-15 ace Kapetan Nikolay M. Zameskin while flown by John E. Fagan.



This picture was taken on January 7 1952 by the guncamera mounted in the MiG-15bis Nº 1315325 of Yevgeny G. Pepelyayev, and shows the last moments of the F-86E BuNo 50-651 of the 25th FIS. The US flier, Charles Eugene Stahl, ejected and became POW.

Few days later, on January 11, Pepelyayev and two other pilots of his regiment (Captains V. G. Murayov and Boris Bokach) claimed to score F-86 kills, but so far it seems that these are overclaims in good faith, and that the only Sabre loss of the day (F-86E BuNo 50-612, Thiel M. Reeves, KIA) was actually scored by another Russian MiG-15 ace: Nikolai Sutyagin. Few days later, on January 15, Pepelyayev flew his last combat sortie in Korea, and two weeks later his unit was sent back to the Soviet Union.

Pepelyayev's personal combat record was impressive, to say the least: he flew 109 combat sorties, he participated in 38 aerial combats, and was credited with 19 aerial victories against American aircraft (14 F-86s, two F-84s, one F-80 and two "F-94s"). And we must remember that such achievement (and the ones of his fellow pilots) were accomplished by pilots that wore no g-suits at all, as the American fliers did.
Heroe of the Soviet Union

After such formdable combat career, it wasn’t a surprise when, on April 22 1952, Colonel Yevgeni Pepelyayev was awarded with the Zolotaya Zvezda - myedal Geroya Sovietskogo Sojuza (The "Golden Star" - the medal of Heroe of the Soviet Union), the highest Soviet military decoration. A particular characteristic of the ceremony was that Pepelyayev wore civilian clothes, and in the speech there was no mention of the actions why he deserved the award. The need to keep the secret caused that such story repeated with the 22 Soviets pilot who were awarded during the Korean War.

His impressive scoreboard of 19 victories was only surpassed by another Soviet pilot who fought in the same period: Captain Nikolai V. Sutyagin (17th IAP, 303rd IAD) with 21 claims (13 of them confirmed by USAF). All the 19 victories of Yevgeny Pepelyayev are summarized in the Table # 1:

Dopuna: 07 Feb 2009 1:07

Date Unit Aircraft Weapon Victim Status/Name Unit/Service
20-May-1951 196 IAP, 324 IAD MiG-15bis 23/37mm F-86A Milton Nelson (*) 335 FIS, USAF
11-Jul-1951 196 IAP, 324 IAD MiG-15bis 23/37mm F-86A BuNo 49-1297 (*) 336 FIS, USAF
21-Jul-1951 196 IAP, 324 IAD MiG-15bis 23/37mm F9F-2B BuNo 109I405116 VMF-311, USMC
21-Jul-1951 196 IAP, 324 IAD MiG-15bis 23/37mm F9F ----- USMC (**)
6-Oct-1951 196 IAP, 324 IAD MiG-15bis 23/37mm F-86A Gill M. Garrett 336 FIS, USAF
6-Oct-1951 196 IAP, 324 IAD MiG-15bis 23/37mm F-86A BuNo 49-1267 (*) 334 FIS, USAF
16-Oct-1951 196 IAP, 324 IAD MiG-15bis 23/37mm F-86A Nicholas Kotek (*) 336 FIS, USAF
28-Oct-1951 196 IAP, 324 IAD MiG-15bis 23/37mm F-86 ----- USAF(**)
8-Nov-1951 196 IAP, 324 IAD MiG-15bis 23/37mm F-86A Charles W. Pratt - KIA 334 FIS, USAF
8-Nov-1951 196 IAP, 324 IAD MiG-15bis 23/37mm RF-80A Dennis W. Hill (*) 15 TRS, USAF
27-Nov-1951 196 IAP, 324 IAD MiG-15bis 23/37mm F-84E B. Seitzinger (*) - KIA 7 FBS, USAF
28-Nov-1951 196 IAP, 324 IAD MiG-15bis 23/37mm F-86A BuNo 49-1166 (*) 4 FIW, USAF
28-Nov-1951 196 IAP, 324 IAD MiG-15bis 23/37mm F-86E Dayton Ragland - POW 336 FIS, USAF
29-Nov-1951 196 IAP, 324 IAD MiG-15bis 23/37mm F-86A BuNo 48-301 334 FIS, USAF
1-Dec-1951 196 IAP, 324 IAD MiG-15bis 23/37mm F-80C Thomas Mounts - POW 35 FBS, USAF
6-Jan-1952 196 IAP, 324 IAD MiG-15bis 23/37mm F-86 ----- USAF (**)
7-Jan-1952 196 IAP, 324 IAD MiG-15bis 23/37mm F-86E Charles Stahl - POW 25 FIS, USAF
8-Jan-1952 196 IAP, 324 IAD MiG-15bis 23/37mm F-86 BuNo 50-679 (dam) 336 FIS, USAF
11-Jan-1952 196 IAP, 324 IAD MiG-15bis 23/37mm F-86 ----- USAF(**)

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A kad čovek gleda History, Discovery i njima slične kanale, nigde nema pomena o ljudima kao što je Pepeljajev... Po njima ispade da su u migovima leteli retardirani imbecili koje su Ameri obarali k'o muve... Strašno.

@Khaless

jel' imaš još sličnih članaka?

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  • Weyland-Yutani corp. Nije svako jaje Uskršnje jaje - ali ima iznenadjenje unutra!
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Hyperion ::A kad čovek gleda History, Discovery i njima slične kanale, nigde nema pomena o ljudima kao što je Pepeljajev... Po njima ispade da su u migovima leteli retardirani imbecili koje su Ameri obarali k'o muve... Strašno.

@Khaless

jel' imaš još sličnih članaka?


Name Kills Comments

Sutyagin N V 21+2 (21 personal and 2 in group)
Pepelyaev Ye G 19 (and 4 more Pepelyaev's kills was recorded on his wingman score)
Smortzkow A P 15
Schukin L K 15
Oskin D P 14 (or 11 on another sources)
Ponomaryov M S 14 (or 11 on another sources)
Kramarenko S M 13
Sutzkow 12
Sheberotov N K 12
Bakhayev S A 11
Dokashenko N G 11
Ohay G U 11 (and 6 in WW2)
Pomaz 11
Samoylov D A 10
Milaushkin M S 10
Pulov G I 10 (or 8 on another sources)
Mihin M I 9
Subbotin S P 9
Zabelin N V 9
Ges G I 8 (or 9 on another sources)
Fedorets S A 7 confirmed and 1 unconfirmed - unconfirmed victory is downing of the best of American aces McConnell plane on 12.04.53.
Babonin N N 7
Zaplavnev I M 7
Ivanov L M 7 (not Nikolay Ivanov from your list who have 3 cofirmed kills 1 unconfirmed kill and 2 damaged planes)
Bokatz B V 6
Vishnyakov S F 6
Zameskin N M 6
Nikolayev A P 6
Nikulin P F 6
Boitsov A S 6
Hvostontsev V M 6
Abakumov B S 5
Bashman A T 5
Belousov V I 5
Berelidze G N 5
Bogdanov G I 5
Gerasimenko N I 5
Danilov S D 5
Dmitryuk G F 5
Karelin A M 5
Korniyenko N L 5
Kochegarov A M 5
Lepikov V L 5
Naumenko S I 5
Obraztsov B A 5
Olenitsa 5
Prudnikov 5
Siskov B N 5
Shelamanov N K 5
Shkodin N I 5 (or 3 on another sources)

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Lebac ti... Mrzi me da sabiram, al su se naobarali aviona, 4 trostruka asa. Zagrljaj

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Hyperion ::A kad čovek gleda History, Discovery i njima slične kanale, nigde nema pomena o ljudima kao što je Pepeljajev... Po njima ispade da su u migovima leteli retardirani imbecili koje su Ameri obarali k'o muve... Strašno.

@Khaless

jel' imaš još sličnih članaka?

Ево чланак!

Mnogobrojni analitičari, koji su se bavili tematikom vezanom za sukob Severne i Južne Koreje koji se odigrao početkom pedesetih godina, sve do početka devedesetih prošlog veka u svojim analizama imali su na raspolaganju samo podatke jedne strane.To je bila verzija istorije koju je pisala zvanična Amerika. Početkom devedesetih, svoju verziju priče o tim vremenima objavljuje i zvanična Moskva preko nekih vojnih časopisa, u novinama “Avijacija i kosmonautika”, i u tv emisijama serijala “Krila sa crvenom zvezdom”. Ta priča se u nekim elementima razlikuje od Američke, u nekima ne, a u opisivanju nekih događaja se nadopunjuju.



Prve informacije koje su se pojavile u javnosti potiču sa zajedničke proslave veterana koreanskog rata, a uzete su iz intervjua koji je tom prilikom dao Aleksandar Pavlovič Smortckov. On je penzionisani pilot-pukovnik, koreanski ratni veteran, Heroj Sovjetskog Saveza i nosilac ordena Crvene Zvezde za učešće u tom sukobu. Po njegovim rečima, već juna 1950. godine njegova jedinica je letela na avionima MIG-15, kada ih je komandant PVO Moskve, general-pukovnik Moskalenko informisao u pogledu tajnog naređenja za njihov odlazak na daleki istok. Ubrzo se naređenje realizovalo, i njegova jedinica je specijalnim tajnim vozom prebačena u Mukdan, a pet dana nakon toga prebacili su ih u vazdušnu bazu Andun.

Sećajući se tih dana, navodi da je na njega veoma jak utisak ostavila klima tog podneblja, obilujući kišama, tako da je na samom aerodromu bilo mnoštvo potoka. Svi su bili obučeni u uniforme Kineske vojske, koja je otvoreno podržavala snage Severne Koreje za razliku od Rusa koji su to radili prikriveno, čak su i avioni MIG-15 koje je njegova jedinica prva dobila imali kineske oznake. Avioni su im stigli u tri navrata po osam aparata. Zanimljivo je spomenuti iz njegovog intervjua da su u tim igrama skrivanja oko Ruskog učešća u sukobu,piloti u početku bili primorani da radio vezu održavaju na Kineskom ili Korejsom jeziku. Pošto niko od njih nije znao ni jedan od ta dva jezika, koristili su neke priručne rečnike, i to je izazivalo ogromnu konfuziju u Ruskim redovima. Čak je ovo naređenje imalo snažan negativni uticaj na rezultate prvih vazdušnih borbi u kojima su učestvovali, ali po njegovim rečima na njihovu sreću brzo se od njega odustalo.

Smortckov napominje još jedan veliki problem koji su imali Ruski piloti, a to je da su oni svoje Američke kolege, saveznike iz II svetskog rata i dalje gledali istim očima, da ih nisu smatrali neprijateljima, nego običnim rivalima sa kojima se sada samo takmiče, pa nema veze ko trenutno pobeđuje. On i njegovi saborci visoko cene svoje rivale napominjući da su Američki piloti veoma dobri. Smortckov se osvrnuo i na avione koji su korišćeni u ratu u Koreji, napominjući da je MIG-15 bio najbolji avion u sukobu, iako se moglo desiti u izuzetno oštrim manevrima da mu stane motor, zahvaljujući čemu su i Ruski piloti svoj osnovni zadatak zaštite rejona Anduna kao električnog čvorišta, i mostova snabdevanja preko reke Jal obavili sa velikim uspehom. On ističe da je Sejbr jedini avion protivnika koji je bio ravnopravan sa njihovim migovima,i da je to bio odličan avion, dok za F-80 navodi da nije bio dobar avion, a za F-84 iznosi mišljenje da je prosečan.





MiG-15 - iz muzeja USAF



Svoj intervju Smortckov je završio opisom načina na koji su Ruski komandanti držali moral svojim ljudima. Naime, pre poslednjeg leta u Koreji njemu je naređeno da pre nego što ga puste da ide kući, da ide da napadne Sejbrove, pa tek onda može slobodno da odleti u SSSR.



U svom poslednjem letu u ovom ratu on je bio ranjen, ali je preživeo i sretno se vratio kući. Kada se oporavio, bio je raspoređen za probnog pilota na Sejbru za koga su zvaničnici tvrdili da im je preleteo Američki pilot Ruskog porekla Makhanin. Time je ovaj rat bio završen za njega, ali se sa tugom seća svih poginulih drugova, sahranjenih u Port Artruru.

Poreklo ovog aviona je najverovatnije Sejbr koga je oborio pukovnik Pepeljajev 6. oktobra 1951.godine. Američki pilot je pogođen doplanirao sa avionom u priobalje Severnog Kineskog mora, odakle su ga njegovi spasili sa Sa-16 Albatrosom, a Rusi u brzoj i komplikovanoj akciji pod vatrom Američkih

poručnik No Kim-Sak


bombardera koji su bombardovali mesto prinudnog sletanja izvukli iz mora avion i transportovali u SSSR na daljna ispitivanja. Amerikanci su do Miga-15 u letnom stanju došli tek 21.9.1953. godine tako što su ponudili Koreanskim pilotima pripadnicima Ujedinjenih vazdušnih snaga nagradu od 100000$. Tog dana im je avion dovezao Koreanski poručnik Kim Sak No sletevši na aerodrom Kimpo.

Rečima pukovnika Smortckova opisan je sam početak sukoba u Koreji, ali pravi zaplet počinje oktobra 1950.godine. Naime, Rusi su do oktobra 1950.godine svojim saveznicima obilato pomagali u ratnoj tehnici, isključujući avijaciju, a učešće ljudstva se ogledalo u mnoštvu vojnih savetnika i instruktora, kojih je u zavisnosti od potreba bilo po proceni američkih obaveštajnih službi i do 25000. Pošto sva ova sila tehnike i ljudstva nije dala željene rezultate, u pomoć je poslana i najmoćnija snaga-avijacija. Poslani su Ruski najmoderniji lovački avioni tog vremena predstavljeni u avionu MIG-15. Problem je bio što niko drugi na njima nije leteo, osim Rusa, tako da ih je ta činjenica uvela u sukob u kome su sada direktno učestvovali. Prva veća jedinica,nakon male predhodnice sa kraja leta, koja je stigla početkom oktobra na koreansko ratište bio je 196. lovački puk.Ovaj puk bio je pod komandom jednog od najboljih pilota perioda “hladnog rata”, pukovnika Jevgenija Pepeljajeva. Kako su pripadnici ovog puka do tada neprikosnovenu prevlast Amerikanaca u vazdušnom prostoru počeli snažno da ugrožavaju, već nakon prvih borbenih letova novembra 1950.godine, Američki general Stratemajer dobija na raspolaganje za manje od mesec dana Američki 4. ving naoružan avionima F-86 Sejbr. Sastav vinga bio je formiran od najboljih Američkih pilota, veterana i asova II Svetskog rata. Obzirom na dobre rezultate svojih jedinica nakon uvođenja Migova u borbu, a sagledavajući novonastalu situaciju dolaskom Sejbrova odgovor Rusa usledio je u januaru 1951.godine, kada se u kineskoj vazdušnoj bazi Andun oformio 64.lovački korpus. Na čelo korpusa u početku je postavljen general Belov, a u njegov sastav je pored već pomenutog 196. lovačkog puka ušao i 176. gardijski lovački puk na čelu sa proslavljenim pilotom,trostrukim herojem Sovjetskog Saveza,asom sa 62 pobede iz II Svetskog rata, pukovnikom Ivanom Kozhedubom.Kao i Amerikanci, i Rusi su,ali samo u prvoj godini rata u Koreju slali samo svoje najbolje pilote,pretežno veterane sa ratnim iskustvom. Ruski piloti su pored borbenih zadataka, vršili i obuku Kineza i Koreanaca. Baza Andun za stacioniranje Ruske avijacije nije slučajno izabrana. Ona se pre svega nalazi u Kini, zemlji koja nije deklarativno u direktnom ratnom sukobu što je uticalo na njenu bezbednost, a opet je u neposrednoj blizini objekata koje je i čuvala Ruska avijacija. Naime, Ruskim pilotima je bilo potrebno oko 5 minuta leta do linija uvođenja u borbu nakon poletanja za čuvane objekte, a to su pre svega bili širi rejon Anduna kao izvora električne energije i mostovi na reci Jal preko kojih je vršeno snabdevanje trupa na frontu.

Dopuna: 14 Feb 2009 0:08

Ta blizina je bila i jedna od velikih prednosti Rusa nad Amerikancima, jer je ovim drugima u varijanti bez dopune goriva u vazduhu ostajalo oko 5 minuta mogućnosti učešća u eventualnoj vazdušnoj borbi. Andun je odabran i zbog mogućnosti da se u njegovom zaleđu,dok nema direktnih konflikata, vrši obuka sa mladim pilotima. Interesantno je napomenuti, iako je aerodrom Andun u neposrednoj blizini zone u kojoj su se najčešće sukobljavali Amerikanci i Rusi, da nikada direktno nije bombardovan. Čak je postojalo naređenje Američkim pilotima da ne preleću reku Jal u Kinesku teritoriju u napadu na Ruse koji su mogli biti laka meta na sletanju. Ovakvo ponašanje Amerikanaca da ne napadaju objekte u dubini teritorije NR Kine, objašnjava se i time da Rusi nisu napadali njihove baze u Japanu, odnosno željom i jednih i drugih da ne izazovu nekontrolisano širenje sukoba. U ovome su svoj doprinos dali i Kineski i Severno-Koreanski piloti koji su nekoliko puta u toku rata sa svojim bombarderima PO-2 upadali na teritoriju Južne Koreje, ali ni u jednoj od tih akcija mete im nisu bile tamošnje Američke vojne baze. Naravno, u kasnijoj fazi rata kada su se borbe rasplamsale, i povećao se broj gubitaka na obe strane, neki od Američkih pilota su kršili ovo naređenje, napadajući Ruse na sletanju. Ovi pak, da bi se zaštitili od ovakvih napada bili su primorani da jedan broj aviona drže u pripravnosti u vazduhu kako bi zaštitili svoju zonu sletanja.





MiG-15bis iz 351 IAP, baza Andun - www.airwar.ru



Nisu samo Rusi morali da primenjuju nove i nove taktičke postupke. U ovoj igri obe strane su više puta bile primoravane od suparnika na raznorazna snalaženja, koja su kako se kasnije pokazalo u ogromnoj meri uticala na dalji razvoj oružanih snaga u svetu, a naročito njihovog najjačeg i najznačajnijeg dela-vazduhoplovstva. Prvi ustupak napravili su Rusi zbog katastrofalne situacije na frontu njihovih saveznika i uveli Migove u borbu. Pošto se to pokazalo kao pun pogodak i odmah donelo željene rezultate, odnosno počelo da donosi prevlast Rusima u vazduhu značajnim nanošenjem gubitaka protivniku u avionima a naročito u bombarderima što im je bio i osnovni cilj, Amerikanci su promenili taktiku i svoje bombardere počeli da šalju noću u nadi da će to promeniti novonastalu situaciju. Rusi kao odgovor na nove uslove intenziviraju upotrebu njihovog noćnog lovca Lavočkin La-11. Ovaj avion sa svojom maksimalnom brzinom od 620 km/h za Američke B-26 je bio smrtonosan, ali za 60 km/h brže B-29 nije predstavljao realnu opasnost. Ovo je uočila i jedna i druga strana i ubrzo je usledio odgovor. U početku to je bila samo jedna eskadrila Migova, ali kako se pokazalo efikasnim oformljena je i lovačka divizija specijalizovana za noćna dejstva. Pošto avion Mig-15 nije bio namenjen za noćna dejstva, prilikom ovih napada njegovi piloti su obilato koristili pomoć sa zemaljskih radarskih stanica za navođenje kojima je široki rejon oko Anduna bio prosto preplavljen. Amerikanci su na pojavu Migova odgovorili tako što su sa bombarderima počeli da šalju eskortne noćne lovce F-94 i USMCF3D, ali na njihovu nesreću to nije suštinski imalo uticaja. Zbog svega navedenog smanjila se podrška trupama na zemlji Južne Koreje, što je opet dovelo da su snage Severne Koreje prešle već decembra 1950.godine u snažnu kontraofanzivu povrativši ubrzo i glavni grad Pjongjang. Amerikanci su novonastalu situaciju pokušali opravdati uz pomoć snažne propagande navodeći da Rusi u borbi imaju na raspolaganju 540 aviona Mig-15. Išlo se toliko daleko da su se i konkretni sukobi po danima na ratnom nebu preuveličavali do astronomskih cifara aviona učesnika, ali se mora istaći sa ove vremenske distance upoređujući izvore i jedne i druge strane da je to bio samo plod nečije mašte kod Amerikanaca. Naime, Rusi su za vreme sukoba maksimalno imali stacionirano 5 pukova u čijem sastavu se nalazilo po 35 aviona, a što se tiče Kineza, njima je isporučeno 200 aviona Mig-15, ali ovi avioni nikada nisu u ovom broju uključeni u sukob. Problem kod Kineza bila je njihova preobuka koja je išla sporo, a i kada bi je završili njihovo učešće je bilo minimalno, jer su onako neiskusni bili laka meta za Američke iskusne pilote veterane.




rivali iz korejskog rata: MiG-15 i F-86F - www.air-and-space.com



Za razliku od Rusa, Amerikanci su imali po podacima sa kraja 1951.godine na raspolaganju:
165 F-86, 100 B-29, 10 B-26, 150 F-84, 150 F-80, 70 F-51 i 30 Australijskih Meteora.Ove brojke pokazuju značajnu prevagu u tehnici na strani Amerikanaca, što nije odražavalo i situaciju na ratištu.

U ovom sukobu istaklo se mnoštvo pilota-asova, kako kod Amerikanaca, tako i kod Rusa, ali ime pilota Pepeljajeva ima posebnu težinu. Za ovog skromnog Rusa, koji je bio komandant 196. puka i nije trebao uopšte da leti, pored toga što je delio 1. mesto u broju oborenih aviona sa pilotom Sutjaginom (oborili su po 23 neprijateljska aviona), za njega je bilo vezano više događaja koji su imali snažan uticaj na ratna događanja. Tako je pukovnik Pepeljajev svojim pilotima pre zvaničnog skidanja zabrane upotrebe Ruskog jezika u toku vazdušnih borbi izdao naređenje da se slobodno služe svojim jezikom. Za njegovo ime vezan je i oboreni Sejbr koga su Rusi transportovali u SSSR, remontovali i ispitivali. On je oborio jednog Američkog pilota, koga su potom uhvatili Kinezi, i prilikom ispitivanja izvukli od njega podatke vezane za avion Sejbr. Kinezi su imali posebne snage za ovakve akcije, koje su ujedno služile i za potvrde vazdušnih pobeda pilota.

Iz tih informacija zaključeno je da Sejbr ima lošije letne karakteristike sa povećanjem visine, a kako su Američki bombarderi leteli na velikim visinama, što je Rusima odgovaralo, ovu informaciju su odmah iskoristili za korigovanje svoje taktike, i upotrebu svojih aviona namenski podizali na veću visinu, gde je zaštita bombarderima slaba, te samim tim i oni ranjiviji. Zanimljivo je napomenuti da se ime ovog pilota ne zna, jer Amerikanci nisu inače objavljivali imena svojih pilota koji su bili uhapšeni.

22. aprila 1952.godine pukovnik Pepeljajev je odlikovan Zlatnom zvezdom Heroja Sovjetskog Saveza za svoje zasluge u ratu u Koreji, i vraćen kući. Tom prilikom je dao izjavu u kojoj skromno kaže da orden nije zaslužio, da je bio tu da pomogne jadnom Kinekom narodu, ali da mu nije jasno zašto su njegovi piloti nepotrebno izlagani opasnosti ulaskom u ovaj sukob, što mu je zamereno od vojnog vrha. Iz njegovog tadašnjeg opisa jedne vazdušne borbe može se videti način kako su to Rusi radili: početno navođenje čitave grupe je vršeno uz pomoć zemaljskih radarskih stanica, a kada bi se navođenje završilo, i prelazilo se na blisku borbu, komandant predstavljen u vođi prvog para, najčešće pilot sa najvećim činom i funkcijom bi nastavio dalje raspoređivanje, a najčešće u grupe od po 6 aviona. Ukoliko su protivnici Sejbrovi, nakon početnog raspoređivanja, Migovi bi se sada podelili na 3 para, od čega je prvi par određen da napadne i oni su imali kodni naziv”mačevi”. Drugi par je za njih igrao ulogu zaštite i oni su se zvali”štitovi”. Treći par je trebao da sa veće visine nadgleda situaciju ispod sebe, i u zavisnosti od događanja uskoči u pomoć 1. ili 2. paru. Ovaj par je imao veliku slobodu manevra, kao i veoma povoljnu poziciju da napadne usamljenog Sejbra kome bi vođa bio pogođen. Ova taktika se pokazala veoma dobrom, te su joj Američki piloti dali naziv “slučaj Jons”, a njene aktere su nazivali”bosses”. Po njegovom ličnom receptu sačinjenom nakon ogromnog iskustva, a i zbog nedostataka naoružanja na Migu-15 vodeći par bi napao vođu odabranog para i to bi počinjalo proletanjem čelo u čelo što bliže Sejbru. Nakon toga bi usledilo snažno penjanje sa skretanjem u desnu stranu. Na gornjoj visini bi se osmotrio neprijatelj, i ukoliko je drastično promenio položaj, i izašao iz zone za napad, napad bi se prekidao. Ukoliko bi sve bilo u redu, pravio bi se zaokret u desnu stranu sa ciljem podešavanja za uvođenje u napad u levu stranu, nakon čega bi se prilazilo Sejbrovima na daljine oko 150 metara ili manje, iza njih I malo desno i sa indikatorom cilja nešto iznad kabine Sejbra. U ovom slučaju blagog nadvišenja pilot Miga bi bio u prednosti da reaguje na eventualno obrušavanje Sejbra tako što bi nakon izvođenja poluvaljka, bez obzira na snižavanje bio izložen pozitivnom dejstvu sile Zemljine teže. Kada bi se manevrisanje završilo, i oba aviona došla u približno horizontalan položaj, pilot Miga bi samo na toj udaljenosti trebalo da blago drži indikator cilja na Sejbru, i sva njegova municija bi završavala u kabini protivnika.
Koristeći se ovim taktičkim radnjama, piloti Migova su dosta uspešno izvršavali postavljene zadatke, a zona najčešćeg sukobljavanja i obaranja mnoštva aviona sa obe strane je dobila ime Aleja Migova. Dobila je ime od Amerikanaca, simbolizujući da tamo ima uvek mnogo Migova pravdajući time lične gubitke.
Gubitaka je bilo na obe strane, a brojevi koji ih predstavljaju zavise od vremena kada se koriste, u koje svrhe i ko ih koristi i objavljuje.



Pošto su ovde korišteni podaci Ruske strane, sa dosta velike vremenske distance, a i u ekstremnim slučajevima konsultovana Američka literatura, možemo se nadati da barem približno odražavaju stvarnost.Evo tabele koja pokazuje ukupno oborene Američke avione tokom čitavog sukoba, uključujući avione koje su oborili Rusi na Migu-15, ali koje su oborili i Kinezi i Koreanci. Ove brojke su dobijane iz više izvora i nastajale su tokom dužeg vremenskog perioda, jer Amerikanci u prvim momentima nisu priznavali sve gubitke Migovima, nego su se neka obaranja namerno pripisivala protivničkoj PVO, neka obaranja nisu uopšte priznavana, a to su postizali tako što su forsirali povratak aviona prema matičnim bazama. Ti avioni bi se prilikom povratka srušili, ili bi se utvrdilo nakon sletanja nerentabilnost popravke, ali se postizao cilj da protivničke snage na zemlji ne mogu da potvrde gubitake Amerikanaca.

Dopuna: 14 Feb 2009 0:09

Ovo su gubici USAF, a od sopstvenih aviona Rusi navode da su izgubili 538 Mig-15, od čega je 224 Migova sa Kineskim ili Koreanskim posadama. Dali su i odnos njihovog broja izgubljenih aviona i poginulih pilota koji iznosi 2,5:1. Gubitci Rusa su bili različiti tokom rata, tako da su na početku dok su im leteli iskusni piloti, gubitci bili minimalni, a kasnije, krajem 1951.godine kada se Kineski piloti uključuju u sukob i nakon februara meseca 1952.godine kada Sovjetska vrhovna komanda odlučuje da na sticanje ratnog iskustva pošalje mlade pilote sa 100h letanja na mlaznoj avijaciji, gubitci Migova se rapidno povećavaju.Interesantno je napomenuti i rivalstvo, da je poput svojih Američkih kolega kosmonauta koji su leteli na Sejbru, i Ruski kosmonaut Jurij Gagarin bio pilot na avionu Mig-15, i da je baš letevši na njemu tragično izgubio život.Ko god tumačio brojeve izgubljenih aviona,koliki god ti brojevi bili, dajući prevagu jednoj ili drugoj strani, treba reći da su rivalski avioni Sejbr i Mig-15 odlični avioni svoga vremena, predstavljajući vrhunske tehnologije svojih zemalja, i da su zajedno sa svojim vrhunskim posadama i Amerikanci i Rusi uspešno izvršavali sve postavljene zadatke tokom ovog sukoba, dajući snažan zamajac i pravac razvoja nadalje vojne tehnike, dajući ipak akcenat razvoja, kako se i ovde pokazalo najznačajijem, a to je svakako avijacija.

http://www.airserbia.com/magazin/jelic/koreja/index.htm


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