Lockheed Martin/Boeing F-22 Raptor

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Lockheed Martin/Boeing F-22 Raptor

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F-22 Raptor

The F-22 was designed so the Russians and other countries wouldn't kick our butt. Really. Before, the Russians had the Su-27, MIG-29, and other planes that are available to them and any country with enough money to make/buy them. The F-15 was basically still better than anything the other countries had to throw. Then the Russians created the Su-37. The Su-37, which is seen as the F-22's "big rivalry," can flip left, right, or backwards, while standing on its tail at a speed of almost zero. That scared us, and because we have to remain on top of all the other countries whether they like it or not, we made the F-22. The F-22 can't maneuver as well as the Su-37, but it is stealthier, since you can't have both stealth and maneuverability. Our commanders and generals think that stealth is infinitely more important than maneuverability.

About the F-22 (YF-22)

The F-22 represents the greatest advance in fighter capability in 50 years. The F-22 can supersonically cruise without use of afterburner, has extreme maneuverability thanks in part to an advanced thrust vectoring system, stealthiness from all directions, including from infrared systems; a "first-look/first-kill" capability; and avionics that are a generation ahead of anything else in the world, equal in power to seven Cray supercomputers. The F-22 is about the same size as the F-15, but it is way better. Every single part of the F-22 has technology far greater than that of the 25-year-old F-15, which it will replace in November 2004.

Even though the Su-37 has better manuverability, it doesn't have stealth. The F-15 has neither stealth nor maneuverability. The F-22 takes the best of both worlds. It could attaining the same stealth invisibility of the F-117A Stealth Fighter, and by using thrust-vectoring, is able to fly at extreme angles of attack while changing directions at high speeds. The thrust-vectoring system deflects the engines' full thrust by up to 20 degrees a second.(For those of you who didn't get the explanation, it's like the thrust(air) coming out of the engines can be moved by 20 degrees. If you didn't get that explanation, you're hopeless!) This combination makes the F-22 not only extremely hard to detect, but also able to out- maneuver most missiles and planes most of the time. As an example, Lockheed pilots pulled the nose up to 60 degrees, while going slowly, and could still perform a 360-degree roll. Doing the same thing in an F-15 or F-16 would cause the plane to fly out of control, which is why onboard computers impose certain limits that hinder the maneuverability of these aircraft.

As shown in the picture on the left, using the thrust-vectoring system the YF-22 can fly at about a 110 degree angle. The YF-22 can have good control at very high angles of attack. Now look at the right. You can see a YF-22 successfully fire an AIM-9 Sidewinder missile during testing.



And, at the bottom, you can see(from left to right) an YF-22 successfully fire AIM-120 AMRAAM missile during flight testing and a YF-22 just flying around doing nothing in particular.



Stelth tehnology on F-22

To achieve this an aircraft, he must be "stealthy" in many areas;

1. It must be very hard to detect on radar
2. The hot emissions from the engines must be minimal
3. It must be quiet
4. Its engines should not produce contrails or exhaust smoke in cold atmosphere
5. It should be hard to see with the human eye



:: The 49th Fighter Wing says southern New Mexico's Holloman Air Force Base is on track to receive 40 F-22 Raptors

1.0 Stealth features of the F-22
Taking a look at the F-22, quickly reveals the fundamental principles of a stealthy design as discussed earlier.

2.0 Continuous curves
The F-22 uses a combination of different ways to keep radar waves from bouncing back to their origin. The most sophisticated system is the use of so-called continuous curvature.

Many of of the surface shapes of the F-22 are curves with constantly changing radii. These scatter radar beams in all directions instead of back to the radar source. There are no right angles on the exterior of the design.

In order to calculate the curves and the effect they have on radar reflections form any point in 3D space, requires a tremendous computing power.



:: Equally sloped edges and continuous curvature to reduce radar echos to a minimum

The first plane using this technology, extensively is the B-2 stealth bomber, also known as the flying wing.

Since computer- and software development has sky-rocketed over the past 20 years, prediction models can now be calculated quite precisely ,taking in account radar reflection versus the shape of the plane, while supporting more naturally aerodynamic shapes.

3.0 Planform alignment
The second way to keep radar waves from returning to the sending antenna, the leading and trailing edges of the wing and tail have identical sweep angles (a design technique called planform alignment).

The fuselage and canopy have sloping sides. The vertical tails are canted. The engine face is deeply hidden by a serpentine inlet duct and weapons are carried internally.

4.0 Saw-toothed edges
The F-22 has a low height triangle appearance from the front. This physical cross sectional view ensures a small signature from the front and low observability touches such as paint and materials, as well as little "W" shapes where straight lines might have appeared, all tend to break up the signature by absorption or redirection.



:: Detail of the F-22's top, showing a number of places where the w shaped edges are clearly visible

The "W" shapes are found at numerous places on the stealth aircraft. For instance, in the forefront of the cockpit glass, there is a very apparent "W" shape. This reduces the radar energy reflected during a head-on pass to the radar emitter. The "W" shape is also found on landing gear doors, engine inlets and outlets, as well as other openings.

5.0 Engine nozzles
Reduction of radar cross section of nozzles is also very important, and is complicated by high material temperatures.

The approach taken at Lockheed is to use ceramic materials.

The ceramics may be either lightweight, parasitic sheets mounted on conventional nozzle.



:: Specially shaped ceramic coated thrustvectoring nozzles of the F-22 structures or heavier structural materials forming saw-toothed edges

6.0 Cockpit
The pilot's head, complete with helmet, is a major source of radar return. This effect is amplified by the returns of internal bulkheads and frame members. The solution is to design the cockpit so that its external shape conforms to good low radar cross section design rules, and then plate the glass with a film similar to that used for temperature control in commercial buildings. Here, the requirements are more stringent: it should pass at least 85% of the visible energy and reflect essentially all of the radar energy. At the same time, one would prefer not to have noticeable instrument-panel reflection during night flying.

7.0 Antennas
On-board antennas and radar systems are a major potential source of high radar visibility for two reasons. One is that it is obviously difficult to hide something that is designed to transmit with very high efficiency, so the so-called in-band radar cross section is liable to be significant. The other is that even if this problem is solved satisfactorily, the energy emitted by these systems can normally be readily detected. The work being done to reduce these signatures is classified.

8.0 Paint scheme
In order to make the F-22 disappear for the human eye on the ground, when in flight, special camouflage schemes have been developed. This way the plane will blend with the background sky as much as possible viewed from the bottom and disappear in the ground texture when seen from above.



:: The F-22's paint scheme, derived from the F-15's "Mod-Eagle" paint scheme

9.0 Conclusion
The result of all these as well as a number of un-disclosed or non mentioned measures is the F-22's BVR capability, meaning that it can detect, engage and kill an opponent fighter, while staying invisible itself.

Korisceni linkovi:
http://www.area51zone.com/aircraft/f22.shtml
http://www.f-22raptor.com/index_stealth.php
http://www.f-22raptor.com/st_fa22tricks.php



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  • lacko  Male
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salesam veoma postujem ovaj avion,cenim tvoje postove ali posle prvog video klipa zakljucujem da je za decu uzrasta do 14 godina...mislim stvarno ovakve gluposti staviti u simulaciju ovakve vazdusne borbe....tako su nesto slicno pokusali da urade sa f-117 da od njega na neki nacin naprave "nevidljivog" pa zavrsi kod nas u blatu..kazem jos jednom veoma cenim i postujem standarde koje je postavio f22 sa svim svojim novim tehnologijama ali ovakva prepotentnost iskazana kroz obaranje svega i svacega sto ide ka 4 f22...a kod nas 99 bezali ko djavo od krsta od nasih korozivnih 29-tki...predvidjam mu isto tako ravnicu cim dodje u sudar sa koliko toliko opremeljenim i savremenim neprijateljem...pa po mom scenariju gde sam ja taj koji kordinise odbranu svog vazdusnog prostora meni bi bila dovoljna po neka baterijica s400.buka i neve (ona namerno sa nasom modifikacijom)avakscic sa dobrim radarom, par mig31 i par su35 i cao djaci...ako cemo ovakvom decijom logikom od 10-14 god.....a mozda je i ovo sto sam naveo preterano mozda sam precenio f22,moguce da bi ih poskidao i sa manjim sredstvima...



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lacko,

Ma to je samo propaganda, ne trebas se obazirati na to. Postavio sam cisto onako da se vidi kakvih sve ima nebuloza. On jeste stelth ali njih 4 oborise u tom videu ili u prva dva, ukupno ako se ne varam 14 + 24, aviona sto je apsurdno. History chanel, sta dalje da pricamo.

Razmisljao sam da postavim i video gde se porede F-22 i Su-30 u kom naravno Sukhoj (posto je sad to njihova propaganda) ima sve osobine daleko bolje od F-22. Thrust Vector Maneuverability je kod Su-30 ocenjena sa 10/10, a kod F-22 sa 4/10, ja tako nesto ne bi napravio ni u sali (toliko nerealno), koliko god voleo ili ne voleo neki avion. Ajde da su stravili recimo 9/10 za Sukhoj i 8/10 za Raptor, nego sve se vrti oko toga da se neprijatelj napravi sto gorim. Dalje, ima sve drugo bolje ali sam to samo motao, nisam gledao. Video je Power Russia.

Veruj mi, imas sa obe strane, Ruske i Americke, takve nebulozne video materijale, i pogresio si, nisu za decu od 14, vec od max. 9-10 godina Razz .

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  • lacko  Male
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slazem se sa tobom a za taj video znam i isto tako izvodim slican zakljucak...svaka cast raptoru nadam se uskoro ruskom pandanu pa da vidimo sta je i kako je....slozices se sa mnom da je dosta toga u ovakvim simulacijama zapostavljeno kao npr. taktika upotrebe,jedinice vojin,sistemi pvo...jos niko to ne gleda kao na celinu sto se tice takvih analiza i simulacija napad-odbrana....ajde da probam da nadjem bar nesto priblizno pa da postavim,mislim da ce forumasi sa zadovoljstvom analizirati nake takve situacije koje bi se mogle odigrati negde na nebu...

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HA HA AHHAHHAA AAAAAAAAAHHHHAAAHHHAHA pa ove dogfights serije su nesto najsmesnije sto sam ikada gledao..

Zapravo F-22 je jedini avion koji bi mogao da se suprotavi u dogfightu ruskom Su-35, mada ovaj drugi ima malo bolje letne osobine... MiG-29 OVT je u odnosu na F-22, sto se letenja tice, daleko, dalekoooooo ispred...
Samo taj F-22 mnogo kosta (kao mnogo ovih Suhojeva i Migova)... pa je veliki promasaj... al' valjda ce ga dobro izreklamirati kod onih bambusa od americkih gradjana, verovatno ce da prodje... pa lova velikima u dzep...

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  • sebab 
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@Apsolutni

odakle ti podaci koje iznosis? sa aeromitinga?

promasaj avion koji je trenutno najbolji lovac na svatu? tebi je izglada stelt poslednja rupa na svirali?

Dopuna: 06 Nov 2009 8:21

japanci i australijanci mora da su blesavi jer zele f22?

rusi takoje jer prave pandan f22?

prvi lovacki stelt je promasaj?

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Cjena proizvodnje "zadnje" branse izradzenih F22 je 137,5 mil $, dok su prvi imali cjenu 339 mil $ posto se tu ubrajao i razvoj i istrazivanje na avionu. prenma budzetu iz FY 2007.
RV je zainteresovano za jos 100 aviona za koje bi cijena bila dalje snizena na 116 mil$ po avionu... po rijecima Gen Maj. Richard Lewis...Obama je zaprijetio vetom u kongresu ukoliko kongres izglasa proizvodnju novih aviona, mada po rijecima vodecih americkih vojnih planera minimum bi trebalo biti 243 F22...Medjtim demokrate taj visak novca planiraju preusmjeriti na socijalne programe, nadaju ci se da ce F35 popuniti prazninu...Ali STOVL model od F35 kasni dvije godine, tako da se moze desiti da se F22 vrati na proizvodne trake...Za sada Australija i posebno Japan imaju veliku zainteresovanost za kupnju F22 ali on je zabranjen za izvoz i za najlojalnije saveznike...jos jedan razlog visoke cjene...

@SF Nov.2009

Dopuna: 06 Nov 2009 9:53

Razlika u pojmovima izmedju F15 i njegovog nasljednika...

F 15C-Air Superiority

F22- Air Supremacy.

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  • sebab 
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cak i cifra od 137,5 mil $ za takav avion nije prevelika, ako znamo da je cena rafala i ef2000 90-110 mil $, f-15se 100, a gripena 54-70. samo da se ne povampire opet oni sa logikom da 2 gripena sigurno tuku 1 f22...

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sebab ::cak i cifra od 137,5 mil $ za takav avion nije prevelika, ako znamo da je cena rafala i ef2000 90-110 mil $, f-15se 100, a gripena 54-70. samo da se ne povampire opet oni sa logikom da 2 gripena sigurno tuku 1 f22...

Nije, slazem se to je prihvatljivo za ono sto predstavlja...kao sto vidis to mu je cjena od 2007, a mi smo se zakacili na 300 mil...

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zgembo ::sebab ::cak i cifra od 137,5 mil $ za takav avion nije prevelika, ako znamo da je cena rafala i ef2000 90-110 mil $, f-15se 100, a gripena 54-70. samo da se ne povampire opet oni sa logikom da 2 gripena sigurno tuku 1 f22...

Nije, slazem se to je prihvatljivo za ono sto predstavlja...kao sto vidis to mu je cjena od 2007, a mi smo se zakacili na 300 mil...

Takodje, upravo sam to isto hteo da napisem.
Nego, zgembo reci koliko si siguran u taj podatak jer cena od 137milki uopste nije prevelika, jeste skup i dalje ali ne toliko, program je kostao papreno, mada opet nismo ga platili mi, a oni imaju pare. A cisto da kazem, da sam na par mesta i procitao bas tacno kao sto si rekao 137mil. Ono sto pricaju "protivnici" programa o cifri od 350mil je totalno nerealna cena ali kome odgovara, taj je sa odusevljenjem prihvati kao tacnu da bi mogao da obezvredjuje F-22. Samo malo logike, B-2 700 i kusur miliona, pa nemoguce je da dva F-22 kosta toliko.

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